Archroma, a global leader in color and specialty chemicals, will be the new major sponsor for the SDC International Design Competition 2018 launched by SDC on June 20, 2017.

 

SDC’s annual competition engages with hundreds of students, universities and designers globally, helping the entrants develop their understanding of color and the challenges around sustainability in the textile supply chain. The theme for 2018 is ‘color communication’.

 

With a global textile supply chain, being able to communicate a given color through the supply chain efficiently and effectively is vital. Ultimately this provides the designer with the knowledge that their product is commercially suitable from the initial concept stages through to final product.

 

Archroma will support the competition with its Color Atlas color management system, which will be key to both the competition theme and the accompanying educational package.

 

The Color Atlas includes:

 

  • A "physical library" consisting of over 4300 colors, in 6 volumes, for quick and intuitive browsing of the cotton poplin samples.

 

  • Mobile-friendly Color Atlas Online with exciting features such as “color-on-the-go” which allows you to capture an image using your smart phone, and identify the closest Color Atlas shades.

 

  •  Engineered Color Standards connected to robust online technical databases via mobile communication technology.

 

Using these colors also provides the best opportunity to minimize the environmental impact during the dyeing/printing process by ensuring that the dyes conform to many of the environmental standards that exist and are applied using best practice.

 

“We at Archroma are very proud to be the official sponsor of the SDC International Design Competition. The participants will be able to experience first-hand how the Color Atlas can support their creativity. For Archroma, this is a great opportunity to further drive innovation and sustainability in the textile supply chain“, commented Brad McClanahan, Global Head of Service Businesses at Archroma.

 

“We are looking forward to seeing our Color Atlas translating into cool fashion pieces”, McClanahan concludes.

 

The full competition brief will be available shortly. (Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ).

India’s 62% of the population is in the working age group and more than 54% is below the age of 25. The labour force in the coming twenty year is estimated to decrease by 4% while that in India is expected to increase by 32%. It could be a challenge for the Government to provide jobs for such huge numbers.The Prime Minister’s vision of Make in India is aimed at creating jobs for millions in the coming years. This is supported by Skill India Mission which aims to train 1 crore people by 2020 to cater to the new jobs being created. There are a number of Training Providers and certifying agencies conducting training/Skilling programmes of a vast variety in the country. This also brings the need to standardise the skilling ecosystem so that all trainee certified skilled for a particular job role by different agencies are considered at par.

Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship aims to do this through National Skills Qualification Frameworkwhich explains the governing guidelines for all Skill Development course in the Country.The Ministry of Finance, through its notification number No. 8/6/2013-Invt.dated 27th December, 2013 has notified that National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) will be applicable since December 2013 and all other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD, cease to exist, and are superseded by the NSQF. The Notification entitles NSQF compliant training/ educational programmes/courses to receive government funding on a preferential basis since December 2013.

After the third anniversary date of the notification of the NSQF,(December, 2016), Government funding would not be available for any training/ educational programme/ course which is not NSQF-compliant and all government-funded training and educational institutions shall define eligibility criteria for admission to various courses in terms of NSQF levels. The recruitment rules of the Government of India and the public sector enterprises of the central government shall also be amended to define eligibility criteria for all positions in terms of NSQF levels. State Governments shall be encouraged to amend their recruitment rules as well as those of their public sector enterprises to define eligibility criteria for all positions in terms of NSQF levels. After the fifth anniversary date of the notification of the NSQF it shall be mandatory for all training/educational programmes/courses to be NSQF-compliant and all training and educational institutions shall define eligibility criteria for admission to various courses in terms of NSQF levels.

A register of all NSQF approved qualifications will be available at www.nqr.gov.inThe institutions wishing to avail Government funding for Skilling must align their courses to NSQF approved qualifications. They may contact the respective awarding bodies (SSCs/NCVT) for this. The details of Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) are available at www.nsdcindia.org

 

The author is working with the Textile Sector Skill Council (TSC) which is mandated to develop Skill Ecosystem for Textile Mill and handloom Sector. Further details on TSC may be accessed at www.texskill.in or writing to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Introduction:

“Continuous Innovation” is a key element in getting success in Technical textile industry.  One needs to be innovative in production, process & even in marketing strategies.

With the continuous advancement in various fields like healthcare and hygiene, sports, protective textiles, and growing requirements from many industries, the existing fibers is being modified and new fibers are being developed to meet specific and stringent requirements of the technical applications. The fiber and polymer technologists have been continuously innovating new fibres to meet growing demands of high performance and functional textiles. The functional property requirement varies from sector to sector e.g. it is a fibre with high tenacity, high modulus and less weight for the application of filtration and sports textiles. In the case of medical and hygiene products, it should be free from toxic and biodegradable. For protective textiles, fibers should be high resistance to corrosive chemicals and high resistance to elevated temperatures, flames and very high hydrophilic.

 In fact, in case of apparels, the global trend is shifting from occasion specific clothing to function based clothing where fabric properties play major role. Some of the trends like temperature sensitive& IT embedded technical garments will be gaining more importance in coming future. Increasing awareness on climatic changes like global warming, eco-friendly concept & enormous industrial growth will be leading to more focus on function based clothing than need specific clothing. These clothing consist of fibres with inherent functional properties. Technological advancement plays important role in development of high performance and specialty fibres which differ according to their specific properties & end-uses.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RLW9IOI95sM/UUqi8--XnXI/AAAAAAAAGwM/-6VwGInwOsc/s320/Glassfiber.jpgMajor High Performance Fibres:

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-WQiKCyfhY0I/UUqi9FkTsXI/AAAAAAAAGwQ/AhWw-Lk4IAA/s200/Carbon-Fibre.jpgText Box: Glass FiberGlass Fibre: Glass fiber is the oldest and most familiar, high-performance fibre. Fibres have been manufactured from glass since the 1930s. Although early versions had high-strength, they were relatively inflexible and not suitable for several textile applications. Today's glass fibres offer a much wider range of properties and can be found in many end uses, such as insulation, fire-resistant, and reinforcing materials for  composites.

Text Box: Carbon FiberCarbon Fiber: Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. Carbon fibre may also be engineered for strength. Carbon fibre variants differ in flexibility, electrical conductivity, thermal and chemical resistance. Carbon fibre found its applications in automobile, aircraft, sport equipment and carbon electrode etc.

Image result for bullet proof armour

Text Box: Bullet Proof JacketAramid Fiber: Aramid fiber is the best known of the high-performance, synthetic, organic fibres. Closely related to polyamides, aramids are derived from aromatic acids and amines. The high impact resistance of the para-aramids makes them popular for ‘bullet-proof’ body armour. For many less demanding applications, aramids may be blended with other fibres.

 

Image result for polyamide in hot gas filtrationPBI (Polybenzimidazole): PBI (polybenzimidazole) is another fibre that takes advantage of the high stability of conjugated aromatic structures to produce high thermal resistance. The ladder-like structure of the polymer further increases the thermal stability. PBI is noted for its high cost, due to high raw material costs and a demanding manufacturing process. The high degree of conjugation in the polymer structure imparts an orange colour that cannot be removed by bleaching. When converted into fabric, it yields a soft hand with good moisture regain. PBI may be blended with aramid or other fibres to reduce cost and increase fabric strength.

Text Box: Hot Gas FiltrationPBO (polyphenylenebenzobisoxazole) and PI (polyimide) are two other high- temperature resistant fibres based on repeating aromatic structures. Both are recent additions to the market. PBO exhibits very good tensile strength and high modulus, which are useful in reinforcing applications. Polyimide's temperature resistance and irregular cross-section make it a good candidate for hot gas filtration applications.

PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) exhibits moderate thermal stability but excellent chemical and fire resistance. It is used in a variety of filtration and other industrial applications.

Melamine Fiber: Melamine fiber is primarily known for its inherent thermal resistance and outstanding heat-blocking capability in direct flame applications. This high stability is due to the cross-linked nature of the polymer and the low thermal conductivity of melamine resin. In comparison with other high-performance fibers, melamine fibres offer excellent value for products designed for direct flame contact and elevated temperature exposures. Moreover, the dielectric properties, cross-section shape and distribution make it ideal for high- temperature filtration applications. It is sometimes blended with aramid or other high-performance fibres to increase final fabric strength.

Fluoropolymer (PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) offers extremely high chemical resistance, coupled with good thermal stability. It also has an extremely low coefficient of friction, which can be either an advantage or disadvantage, depending on the use.

HDPE (high-density polyethylene) can be extruded using special technology to produce very high molecular orientation. The resulting fibre combines high strength, high chemical resistance and good wear properties with light weight, making it highly desirable for applications ranging from cut-proof protective gear to marine ropes. Since it is lighter than water, ropes made of HDPE float. Its primary drawback is its low softening and melting temperature.

Ceramic Fiber: High-temperature insulation wool (HTIW), known as ceramic fiber wool until the 1990s, is one of several types of synthetic mineral wool, generally defined as those resistant to temperatures above 1000°C. The first variety, aluminium silicate fibre, developed in the 1950s, was referred to as refractory ceramic fibre. Applications envisaged are in gas turbines, both aeronautical and ground-based, heat exchangers, first containment walls for fusion reactors, as well as uses for which no matrix is necessary such as candle filters for high temperature gas filtration. Alumina and silicon carbide bulk ceramics are widely used for their high stiffness and good high temperature mechanical properties in air; however, they are generally weak due to the presence of critically sized defects.

Chemically Resistant Fibers: Chemically resistant organic polymeric fibres include those which are designed to resist chemical attack for acceptable periods during their service lives at both ambient and elevated temperatures. As a consequence of their inert structures they may also be flame resistant and so address markets where that property is also desirable.

Fluorinated fibres: PTFE, PVF, PVDF and FEP (ARH) and Chlorinated fibres: PVDC (ARH) are Chemically resistant fibers.

Thermally Resistant Fibers: Thermally resistant organic polymeric fibres include those that resist thermal degradation and some degree of chemical attack, notably oxidation, for acceptable periods during their service lives. Thermosets (HE and HS), Melamine–formaldehyde fibres, Basofil (BASF) (HE) are Thermally resistant fibres.

Specialty Fibres:

Different categories of specializedfibres available in market like Modal, Tencel, Coolmax, Cuproammonium Rayon, Kermel®, ThermoCool, Recron®, Bamboo, Linen, Acrylic& many more.  .

Tencel: Fully degradable Tencelfibre manufactured from wood pulp is soft as silk, strong as polyester, cool as linen, warm as wool and as absorbent as cotton. Not only is Tencel environmentally friendly, but also is has been designed to be a lovely and wearable fiber. Modal is a semi synthetic cellulose & it is used alone or blended with other fibres. It offers soft hand-feel, good drapebility and comfort while wearing. It has good moisture regain and air permeability which is often considered better than cotton fabric; hence it is used in in household items such as pajamas, towels, bathrobes, under garments and bed sheets. It is a good material for exercise clothing and health suit, which can serve to benefit physiology circulation and health of the body.

 

 

Text Box: Tencel Manufacturing Process 

 

Image result for tencel fibre

Coolmax: A trademark of Invista, is specially-engineered polyester fibre to improve "breathability" compared to natural fibres like cotton. The series of closely spaced channels creates capillary action that wicks moisture through the core and out to a wider area on the surface of the fabric which increases evaporation & now often woven with other materials like cotton, wool, Spandex and Tencel. Properties of CoolMax fabric allows wearer to keep sweat free hence it is widely used in garments of mountain climbing gear, casual sportswear, underwear & mattress covers. Other useful properties include resistance to fading, shrinking and wrinkling. 

http://www.snugmattress.co.uk/media/wysiwyg/Coolmax/How_does_Coolmax_work_copy.jpg

Cuprammonium rayon is also a specialized fibre used in lightweight summer dresses and blouses, sometimes in combination with cotton to make textured fabrics with slubbed, uneven surfaces.

Several other fibres /yarns are widely used various industrial & other functional applications like dope dyed polyester yarns used in high visibility garments; Kermel® having properties of non- inflammability, resistance to high temperature, resistance to abrasion, resistance to chemicals majorly used in protective clothing

ThermoCool fibre/yarns specifically designed to optimize the body's natural thermo regulating capabilities through unique smart fiber cross sections that provide evaporative cooling or thermo-buffering according to the body's needs. The garments produced from spun ThermoCool keep a body warm when it is cold and cool when it is hot leading to total body comfort and garment moisture management majorly used in active sports-wear.

Stretch yarn which is manufactured from Elastane fibre is commonly termed as Lycra or Spandex. Its applications in industry are mostly for body confirming garments such as sportswear, foundation garments, jeans & intimate apparels which ensures a stable shape during wearing. Other outstanding features beside shape retention are higher elasticity, smooth & supple hand-feel, lower moisture regain, resistance to pilling & resistance to abrasion. Global demand of stretch yarn will soar up in coming years because of increasing population.

There are other products like Organic Cotton, Compact, CSY, Melange, Slub, Multi count, Gassed, Mercerized, Fancy yarns, and Polyester/Nylon Filament yarn like DTY, FDY and POY in knitting and weaving also capturing huge markets.

Conclusion:

India has already positioned strongly in international market in terms of convectional yarns, now time has come to understand the importance of high performance and specialty fibres and yarns. Umpteen numbers of different yarns are developed in international market depending upon the properties, end-uses, different finishes, different textures and different looks.

Currently most of high performance and specialty fibres are being imported from outside in India and the demand for the same will be rising in future in multifold with kind of growth in the sectors like automobile, infrastructure, sports, health and hygiene & many industries etc. Indian entrepreneurs can capitalize this great untapped opportunity. Classic example is Recron®- a polyester fibre brand of Reliance Industries. It is developed in wide ranges depending on applications like Recron® Easy Stretch, Recron® FR ( Fire retardant), Recron® LP (low-pill tow and fibre), Recron® Super bright, Recron® Dyefast, Recron® Micrelle, Recron® 3S, Recron® Superdye& many more.

 

The fundamental strength of the Indian textile industry is its strong production base of wide range of fibre / yarns from natural fibres like cotton, jute, silk and wool to synthetic /man-made fibres like polyester, viscose, nylon and acrylic. Now, time has come to focus more on value added yarns which can fetch good margins to Indian spinners than conventional yarns& thereafter taking the final value addition in smart textiles.

 

UNITED NATIONS: India has ranked a lowly 131 among the 188 countries surveyed for human development, a new UN report has said, bracketing the third-largest Asian economy alongside its South Asian neighbours like Pakistan, Bhutan and Nepal. 

India has made no improvement in its ranking over the previous year, despite the Human Development Report for 2015 noting that foreign direct investment favours countries such as China and India. 

India's Human Development Index rank in 2014 was also 131. 

However, 63 per cent Indians were "satisfied" with their standard of living in 2014-15, the latest report found. 

The report, released annually by the UN Development Programme, said India's rank of 131 puts it in the "medium human development" bracket, which also includes nations like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Kenya, Myanmar and Nepal. 

India's HDI rank value in 2015 stood at 0.624, which had increased from 0.580 in 2010. 

Its life expectancy at birth stood at 68.3 years in 2015 and the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita $5,663, the report said. 

On the perception of feeling safe 69 per cent answered "yes", while on freedom of choice, 72 per cent female responders answered they were "satisfied" as compared to 78 per cent for male. 

India's score for overall life satisfaction was 4.3 on a scale of 1-10, according to the report. 


 

On perceptions about government, 69 per cent said they had trust in the national government for the 2014-15 period while 74 per cent said they had confidence in the judicial system. 

It lauded measures like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme taken in India to generate employment. 

"Creating jobs through a public works programme targeted at poor people can reduce poverty through income generation, build physical infra- structure and protect poor people against shocks. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in India and the Rural Employment Opportunities for Public Assets Programme in Bangladesh are prime examples." 

The report noted that increasing clean energy investments in India by 1.5 per cent of GDP a year for 20 years will generate a net increase of about 10 million jobs annually in the country, after factoring in job losses from retrenchments in the fossil fuel industries. 

The report launched in Stockholm yesterday found that although the average human development improved significantly since 1990, progress is uneven, with systemic discrimination against women, indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities. 


It said while many people have greater access to education, health and sanitation, more focus needs to be paid to who has been excluded and why. 

"By eliminating deep, persistent, discriminatory social norms and laws, and addressing the unequal access to political participation, which have hindered progress for so many, poverty can be eradicated and a peaceful, just, and sustainable development can be achieved for all," said UNDP Administrator Helen Clark. 

Titled Human Development for Everyone, the report authored by the Director of the Human Development Report Office SelimJahan, said that one in three people worldwide continue to live at a low level of human development. 

Women and girls are systematically excluded by economic, political, social and cultural barriers, according to the report measured by the Human Development Index - a ranking of countries based on strides made with a peace-centric model of progress. 

"Women tend to be poorer, earn less, and have fewer opportunities in most aspects of life than men," it said. 

The report also points to "dangerous practices," such as female genital mutilation and forced marriage, which continue to hamper the development of women and their inclusion in society. 

In addition to women and girls, the report points to "patterns of exclusion and lack of empowerment" of people in rural areas, indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants and refugees, and members of the lesbian,gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex community. 

The report calls for far greater attention to empowering the most marginalised in society, and recognises the importance of giving them greater voice in decision-making processes.
 

 

 

 

 

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China is reviving the historic Silk Road trade route that runs between its own borders and Europe. Announced in 2013 by President XiJinping, the idea is that two new trade corridors – one overland, the other by sea – will connect the country with its neighbors in the west: Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe.

 

The project has proved expensive and controversial. So why is China doing it?

 

 

There are strong commercial and geopolitical forces at play here, first among which is China’s vast industrial overcapacity – mainly in steel manufacturing and heavy equipment – for which the new trade route would serve as an outlet. As China’s domestic market slows down, opening new trade markets could go a long way towards keeping the national economy buoyant.

 

Hoping to lift the value of cross-border trade to $2.5 trillion within a decade, President Xi Jinping has channelled nearly $1 trillion of government money into the project. He’s also encouraging state-owned enterprises and financial institutions to invest in infrastructure and construction abroad.

It is not an economic project, it is a geopolitical project - and it is very strategic.It's clear that relationships with the ASEAN region, Central Asia and European countries stand to improve significantly if China directs more of its capital into developing infrastructure overseas.

 

Moreover, by striking up economic and cultural partnerships with other countries, China cements its status as a dominant player in world affairs.

 

"We will support the One Belt, One Road project, said President of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Jin Liquin”. But before we spend shareholders' money, which is really the taxpayers' money, we have three requirements." The new trade route should be promote growth, be socially acceptable and be environmentally friendly.

 

 

What is China's Silk Road?

It's a government policy officially known as One Belt, One Road.

It is trying to create a modern version of the ancient network of trade routes, which connected China, Europe and Africa.

 

In the words of Chinese President Xi Jinping:

"The economic belt along the Silk Road is home to almost 3 billion people, and represents the biggest market in the world with unparalleled potential".

 

My Experience is that One Belt, One Road is not just a good medium for China's openness to countries abroad it's also a way to share Chinese experience with the countries involved.

 

The New Silk Road policy covers both land and maritime routes, but it's much more than a transport project. The Chinese government says it's designed to boost global free trade and help countries coordinate their economic policies. As many as 60 nations could be included in the initiative Start with a port, and behind that you have an industrial zone and behind that you have a city so, what we offer you is a full package who wins from that? Local people one report said there were already 900 projects planned at an estimated cost of $890 billion, it's not yet clear where all of this money will come from, But China has already set up a $50 billion Silk Road Fund to support its mission.

 

China to run 1,000 cargo trains to Europe in 2017

BEIJING: China will run nearly 1,000 cargo trains to Europe in 2017, more than double the number from last year, as the Communist trading giant ramps up efforts to boost its dwindling exports.

The cargo trains from southwest China's Chengdu city would be doubled, the Chengdu International Railway Services Company said today.

Chengdu, capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, ran 460 cargo trains to cities in Poland, the Netherlands and Germany last year -- more thanany other Chinese city. 

Chengdu delivered a total of 73,000 tonnes of goods worth 1.56 billion dollar in 2016 globally, state-run Xinhua news agency reported. 

The southwestern hub has planned three major rail line services to Europe, with a middle route to Germany, Poland and the Netherlands, a southern route to Turkey and beyond, and another northern route to Russia.

This year, new routes linking Chengdu to Istanbul and Moscow will be officially launched, company chairman Fan Jun was quoted as saying by the report. 

 

The cargo trains from southwest China's Chengdu city would be doubled, the Chengdu International Railway Services Company said today.

 

The cargo trains from southwest China's Chengdu city would be doubled, the Chengdu International Railway Services Company 

 

Trains to Istanbul and Moscow would take about 16 days and 10 days, with each route planning to operate 200 and 150 trains in 2017, respectively. 

China last month has launched its first freight train to London. London is the 15th city in Europe added to China-Europe freight train services. 

 

Demand for rail cargo service between China and Europe, an alternative to slower and riskier sea freight and much costlier air cargo, has exploded in recent years. 

 

 

·         By June 2016, trains had made nearly 2,000 trips between 25 Chinese cities and Europe, with a total import and export value of $17 billion, it said.

·         China's exports totalled to $2.27 trillion in 2015 slowing down from $2.34 trillion in 2014. 

·         China’s economy grew at 6.9 per cent in 2015 slipping below seven per cent in a quarter of century. 

·         As part of its efforts to stabilise its exports and economy, China has embarked on multibillion dollar global connectivity project called the One Belt One Road, (Silk Road). 

 

The New Silk Road: China Launches Beijing-London Freight Train Route

 

http://specials-images.forbesimg.com/imageserve/020680061ed64f869a379bf6156394af/960x0.jpg?fit=scale

 

A general view of the first China Railway Express, a new railway line from China to Europe during the inauguration by visiting Chinese President Xi Jinping in Warsaw, Poland, on the sideline of the International Forum on the New Silk Road, Monday, 20 June 2016. The visit was intended to boost China's infrastructure investments in Europe, and opening China's market to Poland's foods.

 

On Sunday, the Chinese government launched a rail freight service between China and London. This is the first direct rail link between China and Great Britain. The route of the service will traverse from Beijing, across Asia and Europe, before terminating in London.

 

The route is actually not new at all. It is part of the old Silk Road, which commenced in 200 BC, through which Chinese silk caravans carried wears to Europe and Africa. The trail provided much wealth and prestige for the Chinese Empire of the day.

 

Now, Beijing is aiming to resurrect this historic trade route by using rail power.

The journey is as much an engineering challenge as a logistical problem. Freight must swap trains along the way, as railway gauges vary between the connecting countries. In its 18-day journey, freight will span 7,456 miles of railways, crossing Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium, France and the UK.

 

The new route unlocks a new option for shippers. Currently, the choice is two-fold. One, take an ocean-bound route, which, although cheap, can be slow. Two, use an air carrier that is considerably faster, but much more expensive.

 

A direct rail link between Beijing and Western Europe enables manufacturers to explore new means to lower transport costs. The line may not provide a suitable alternative to all producers, but canny negotiators can leverage the new market entrant to lower prices of their established pathways by boat or plane.

 

Sourced & Compiled by

Mr. Arvind Sinha - CEO

M/s. Business Advisors Group, Mumbai

Cell No. 9820062612 / 8108612612

Email ID: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.   / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

This article focuses on importance of water audits, commercial impact of the same on profitable manufacturing and measures on reducing the water footprint on various types of industries. The water balance sheet of any industry gives you insight of current situation and roadmap for future water conservation action plan.

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As the financial year end is close by, every business is busy in financial closure. But have you ever made your water resource balance sheet? It’s high time for the same too.

 

Water is a precious natural national resource with almost fixed quantum of availability. With continuous growth in country’s population, per capita availability of utilizable water is going down, whereas with ever-rising standard of living of people, all around rapid industrialization and urbanization, demand of fresh water is going up continuously. Unabated discharge of industrial effluents into water bodies is further aggravating the situation of scarcity of water of Acceptable quality. In spite of the fact that fresh water is rapidly becoming scarce it is continued to be used wastefully.

Rapid industrialization and urbanization coupled with continuous decline in per capita water availability is putting a lot of pressure on the available water resources in the country. Hence, it is important to understand the dynamics behind water audit and its impact on profitability of production.

 

What Is Water Used For?

Water is used by commercial, institutional and industrial customers for five primary purposes:

·         Indoor domestic use (rest rooms, kitchens, and laundries)

·         cooling and heating

·         landscape irrigation

·         processing of materials

·         As an ingredient

 

Examples of water uses in commercial and institutional facilities

·         Indoor (Domestic) Water

v  Kitchens, cafeterias, staff rooms –

§  Faucets

§  Distilled/drinking water

§  Ice machines

§  Dishwashers

§  Garbage disposals

§  Food preparation

v  Restrooms and showers

§  Faucets

§  Toilets and urinals

§  Showers

v  Laundry - washing machines

v  Sanitation

§  Facility cleaning

§  Sterilization/autoclaves

§  Equipment washing

§  Dust control

§  Container washing

§  Processes – photographic and x-ray processing, silk screening, dry cleaning, printing, etc.

v  Cooling and Heating

§  Cooling towers/evaporative

§  coolers Boilers and steam systems Once-through cooling

§  Air conditioners

§  Air compressors

§  Hydraulic equipment

§  Degreasers

§  Rectifiers

v  Vacuum pumps

·         Outdoor Water Use

v  Irrigation

v  Pools and spas

v  Decorative water features

 

While establishing any new industry, water and energy are 2 most important factors considered from any factory and processing industry operation point of view. And, water audits can play very important role in the assessment. Water audits are effective methods to account for all water usage within a facility in order to identify opportunities to improve water use efficiency. Benefits from implementation of water audit may include lower utility costs, energy savings, and reduced process costs.

 

 

 

What is Water Conservation?

Water conservation, also known as water use efficiency, is an integral part of water supply planning and water resource management. Water conservation is defined as the beneficial reduction in water use, waste, and loss. Water conservation is becoming a viable alternative and complement to developing new water supplies. While short-term water restrictions imposed during a water shortage can temporarily relieve pressure on water sources, lasting water conservation involves a combination of retrofits, new water saving appliances, maintenance of infrastructure, and a collective water conservation ethic focused on resource use, allocation, and protection.

 

What is water audit?

A water audit is an on-site survey and assessment of water-using hardware, fixtures, equipment, landscaping, and management practices to determine the efficiency of water use and to develop recommendations for improving water-use efficiency. In simple words, a water audit is a systematic review of a site that identifies the quantities and characteristics of all the water uses. The site may vary from a public water utility, facility (institutional or commercial properties like malls, office, schools etc.) or a household. The overall objective of conducting a water audit is to identify opportunities to make system or building water use more efficient.

 

Facility water audits include –

1.      accurate measurement of all water entering the facility

2.      the inventory and calculation of all on-site water uses and any unused water sources or waste streams that may be available

3.      calculation of water related costs

4.      And identification of potential water efficiency measures.

The information from the water audit forms the basis for a comprehensive conservation program to implement specific water saving measures throughout the facility. The conservation program may consist of one or more projects in different areas of the facility.

Estimation of Wastewater Generation & action plan to reduce the generation

It is difficult to assess wastewater generation from industries on the basis of average generation of wastewater per product unit, mainly due to large variations in volume of wastewater generation per product unit. However owing to various constraints, present estimation of industrial wastewater is based on average generation of wastewater per unit product.

The volume of wastewater and concentration of various pollutants in industrial discharge vary depending on manufacturing processes and other factors such as housekeeping, reuse, technology, etc. Even for a given manufacturing process, the amount of wastewater generation depends on several factors, for instance:

(a)   Housekeeping practices - Housekeeping practices refer to simple measures such as arresting leaks from pipes, stopping of unnecessary overflows from the vessels, improving material handling procedures to reduce losses. Poor housekeeping results in significant generation of wastewater.

(b)   Extent of process control - Process control includes setting up of process parameters to optimum levels leading to best possible yields and minimum wastage of water. Product quality requirements refer to commercial specifications, which may vary depending on market.

(c)    Product quality – Product quality requirements including packaging - Achieving better quality generally require additional processing and improved raw materials and thus may generate more wastes.

(d)   Management systems & initiatives - The management systems include entire sequence of raw material processing, technology and production of finished product.

The emphasis on curtailing wastage in handling and improvement in operation processes through better management can lead to minimization of wastes.

The results from water audits should be used for leak detection, minimization of wastewater generated, implementation of water conservation plans such as Rainwater harvesting and watershed management, wastewater recycling, zero liquid discharge policy and so on.

Selection of Right kind of technology for wastewater Treatment & Reuse:-

It is very important to select right kind of technology for wastewater processing. Generally emphasis is given only on capital cost and operation maintenance, recurring costs are overlooked. Hence, it is important to answer following questions before narrowing down on choice of technology.

 

Need for implementation of long term sustainable measures like Rainwater Harvesting

India has enough rainwater available throughout the year. It is question of utilizing the same. As the rainwater is purest source of fresh water, it is important to have long term vision about business sustainability and not just short term vision of payback criteria. As availability of water can largely hamper the production, it must be considered while investing in other short term options like purchasing water from outside temporary resources.

Text Box: Hospitals
•	Bathroom fixture replacement
•	Cooling tower efficiency retrofits
•	Laundry equipment and process changes
•	Condensate return systems for sterilizers
•	 Conversion from x-rays to digital imaging
Text Box: Hotels and Motels
•	Bathroom fixture replacement
•	Laundry equipment and process changes
•	 Guest conservation awareness programs to promote less frequent linen exchanges to reduce laundry
Small Industry Wise Tips

 

 

 

 

       
  Text Box: Schools
•	Bathroom fixture replacement 
•	Cooling tower efficiency retrofits
•	Irrigation efficiency measures such as weather- or moisture-based irrigation controllers
  Text Box: Restaurants
•	Water efficiency training and information for kitchen staff
•	Use air-cooled equipment such as icemakers
•	Bathroom fixture replacement
•	Water efficient appliances and best management practices during their use

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is a typical mindset of the industry that profits are generally made by not treating wastewater properly and hence saving on the treatment cost. But as the “polluters pay” policy is becoming effective day by day, there is requirement of paradigm shift from mindset of “profit in pollution” to “profit from water recovery” and “resource recovery from waste”.

==============================================

©Chitralekha Vaidya

22/02/2017

 

 

In January 2017, the Planning Commission of India had called a meeting in New Delhi to assess why the Textile Industries are struggling and why the second largest sector in India after agriculture was failing to modernise despite pumping-in a huge amount of money under Technology Upgradation Funds Scheme (TUFS) and its later variants.

The apex body, which has now been renamed as Niti Aayog, was shocked to learn that out of the total 22.5 lakh only about 1.5 lakhs are modern and shuttleless machines, rest all are plain powerlooms. It was during this meeting that Malegaon Industries & Manufacturers Association (MIMA) for the first time proposed that a new scheme should be designed and implemented on trial basis in select Textile Clusters.

I was leading the MIMA delegation in that meeting. Participating in the debate we said that owing to the challenges and difficulties which the weavers were facing it would not be possible to modernize the entire 22.5 lakh plain looms all at onceas the government wished. Simultaneously, as a parallel solution to the problem the industry was facing because of discarded machineries, we proposed that the Ministry of Textiles along with the Technology Upgradation Funds Scheme (TUFS) should also provide financial support to the weavers, who were not in a position to buy new modern machines, in upgradingtheir existing plain looms and converting them into Semi-Automatic looms.

The proposal was received with a lukewarm response while the officials insisted on replacing all running plain looms with new rapier, water-jet, air-jet or other machineries to meet what they called the looming global challenges.

Sometimes in 2009 the Planning Commission of India again called a meeting with the same agenda. Interestingly, the Ministry of Textiles could not present any significant improvement in its data of 2007 and the number of modern machines remained more or less the same. By this time we had summed up all the minute details of our proposal, also adding to it the necessary data to show its feasibilityand an overview of the expected results the industry would get after the plain looms were converted into Semi-Automatic looms. After a heated discussion, it was finally agreed upon that the proposal should be thoroughly studied and a draft of the proposed scheme should be prepared on emergency basis.

After a series of meetings at Textile Commissioner Office in Mumbai and with active support from Additional Textile Commissioner S Balaraju and his juniors a draft of the scheme was finally prepared which after some amendment was launched in October 2013 as “Pilot Scheme on In-situ Upgradation of Plain Powerloom for SSI Powerloom Sector”.

The scheme was initially launched in six clusters – Malegaon and Nagpur in Maharashtra, Bhagalpur in Bihar, Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh, Sircilla in Andhra Pradesh and Tanda in Uttar Pradesh, on pilot basis. However, Bhiwandi and Ichalkiranji – two of the country’s major textile clusters, were also added in the list later on.

As per the scheme, the Ministry of Textiles agreed to bear the 50% cost of the updragation kit worth Rs.30,000/- to be fitted in one plain loom. It was also agreed that a weaver would need to install these upgradation kits in at least 08 looms which are running in a single shed.The kit in itself included weft stop motion, warp stop motion, semi positive let-off motion, efficient braking device, and in some cases self-lubricating nylon parts, anti-crack device and dobby.

Soon after the Ministry of Textiles launched the In-situ scheme, the Maharashtra government also flung into action and agreed to provide special subsidy of Rs.10,000/- per upgradation kit, taking the total amount of government fund to Rs.25,000/- for a kit costing Rs.30,000/-

By all accounts, the decisions by Ministry of Textiles, New Delhi and Government of Maharashtra were momentous for the textile industry and the weavers across the six clusters were enthusiastic. During the implementation mode things became simpler after the Ministry of Textiles agreed to transfer the subsidy amount directly to the account of registered suppliers instead of giving them to the weavers.

According to a rough estimate, more than 10,000 looms in the eight clusters were ready for upgradation within one month of the launch of the In-situ scheme. The weavers just needed to pay Rs.5000/- per kit and their plain looms were convertedinto Semi-Automatic machines. Fast installation of the kits, improved quality of fabrics and increased production all lured more and more weavers to fall inline and go for upgradation. The officials of the Textile Commissioner Office, especially Ravi Kumar, Subbayyan S, T Nagraj and DP Sharma were all seen shuttling from one textile cluster to another to make things easier for the weavers and kit suppliers.The then Textile Commissioner Kiran Soni Gupta, Additional Textile Commissioner S Balarajuand others were all overwhelmedby the response.

Everything was going on quiet smoothly, in fact beyond everyone’s expectation. Thencame the shocker, and it was something nobody in the industrywas prepared to face. The Central Government had released its share of the funds to the suppliers. But, the Maharashtra government after releasing funds initially could not do so citing “technical” reasons, forcing the suppliers to stop supply of the kits. Installation of the kits going on with significant pace came to a sudden halt. This was in 2015 and the situation remains so even today.

But, if the Maharashtra government still takes a decision and step to release the dues of the suppliersclearing the technical hurdles, the In-situ scheme could again be brought on track and made to work as game changer in the time of existing crisis.For, the fabrics produced on the plain looms fitted with In-situ upgradation kits are still in demand and the suppliers, almost broken becauseof the long delay in the release of their money, too are ready to give the implementation of the scheme one more chance.

“We have incurred huge losses because of the delay. But, we are still ready to work with the Ministry of Textiles if our dues are cleared, and assurance is given that whatever happened in the past would not be repeated again”, a supplier said on the condition of anonymity.

 

[The writer Aleem Faizee is Founder Secretary of Malegaon Industries & Manufacturers Association (MIMA). He also edits an online news portal ummid.com since last eleven years. He can be reached at aleem.faizee @gmail.com]

 

ABSTRACT:

The garment industry's new drive towards high-value added products is prompted by increasing competition from other countries. Chemicals play a very significant role, be it giving a class of touch through the effects, colorful prints to soft handle, from easy care to nano finish and so on. Garment industry is developing textiles with smart functioning by using new chemical products to provide extra comfort and increased performance. For example, EASY CARE properties for garments which require minimum ironing and resist soiling and staining, ANTIMICROBIAL finishes for leisure and sportswear to prevent odor problems generated by bacteria and so on. A shift in the consumer centric thinking, trend in the supply chain, wherein it's buyers and retailers with whom the decision making rests, process houses and chemical suppliers are constantly striving to innovate or develop new products/concepts for the market and some of these innovations are discussed in the paper.

 

KEY WORDS: Chemicals, Comfort, Garment, Innovation, Value Addition etc

 

INTRODUCTION:

Finishing is the final stage in the processing of fabric or garment before it reaches the customer or user. It enhances the attractiveness and serviceability of the textile material. Finishing can broadly be divided into chemical finishing and mechanical finishing. To make salable consumer products, the fibre, yarn, fabric or readymade garments have to go through various chemical-processing sequences such as preparatory, dyeing, printing and finishing. Among these the chemical finishing assumes considerable significance because the value addition is realized through functional finishing imparting the desirable properties.

 

 

 

VALUE ADDITIONS IN TEXTILE FINISHING:

 

NANO FINISH IN TEXTILES:

Self-cleaning textiles:

The German researcher Wilhelm Barthlott of the Bonn Institute of Botany discovered, in 1990, that the lotus plant, admired for the resplendence of its flowers and leaves, owed this property of self-cleaning to the high density of minute surface protrusions. These protrusions catch deposits of soil preventing them from sticking. When it rains, the leaf has a hydrophobic reaction. Water rolls around as droplets, removing dust as it moves. Reproduced for nano technological process on the surface of woven fabrics, this self-cleaning property can be developed as a technological innovation. The fabric will have specific applications such as sails or certain garments. A self-cleaning cotton fabric known as nano care was developed and is marketed by an American Company, Nanotex and stain-resistant jeans and khakis are available since 1990. Nano care fabrics are created by modifying the cylindrical structure of the cotton fibres making up the fabric. At the nano scale, cotton fibres look like tree trunks.

Using nano techniques, these tree trunks are covered in a fuzz of minute whiskers which creates a cushion of air around the fibre. When water hits the fabric, it beads on the points of the whiskers, the beads compress the air in the cavities between the whiskers creating extra buoyancy. In technical terms, the fabric has been rendered super-non wettable or super-hydrophobic. The whiskers also create fewer points of contact for dirt. When water is applied to soiled fabric, the dirt adheres to the water far better than it adheres to the textile surface and is carried off with the water as it beads up and rolls off the surface of the fabric. Thus, the concept of “Soil-cleaning” is based on the leaves of the lotus plant.

 

UV protective finish:

The most important functions performed by the garment are to protect the wearer from the weather. However, it is also to protect the wearer from harmful rays of the sun. The rays in the wavelength region of 150 to 400 nm are known as ultraviolet radiations. The UV-blocking property of a fabric is enhanced when a dye, pigment, delustrant, or ultraviolet absorber finish is present that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and blocks its transmission from a fabric to the skin. Metal oxides like ZnO as UV-blocker are more stable when compared to organic UV-blocking agents. Hence, nano ZnO will really enhance the UV-blocking property due to their increase surface area and intense absorption in the UV region. For antibacterial finishing, ZnO nano particles scores over nano silver in cost-effectiveness, whiteness, and UV-blocking property.

Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes deflect the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a person’s UVR exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage. The extent of skin protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV radiation intensity and distribution in reference to geographical location, time of day, and season. This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun Protection Factor), higher the SPF value better is the protection against UV radiation.

 

Characteristics of nano finishing in garments:

  • Nano-processed garments have protective coating, which is water and beverage repellent
  • Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye
  • When a substance is manipulated at sizes of approximately 100 nm, the structure of the processed clothing becomes more compressed. This makes clothing stain- and dirt-resistant
  • Saving time and laundering cost
  • This technology embraces environmental friendly properties
  • Nano-materials allow good ventilation and reduce moisture absorption, resulting in enhanced breathability while maintaining the good hand feel of ordinary material
  • The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat
  • Nano-processed products are toxic free
  • Garments stay bright, fresh looking and are more durable than ordinary materials
  • Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products

 

Antimicrobial finish in textiles:

The inherent properties of the textile fibres provide room for the growth of microorganisms. Besides, the structure of the substrates and the chemical processes may induce the growth of microbes. Humid and warm environment still aggravate the problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development of odor where the fabric is in direct contact with the skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack. Basically, with a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials. It is a well-known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to its antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties of silver are now scientifically recognized. Silver ions have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate silver compound or nano particle with a fibre reactive polymer like poly (styrene comaleic anhydride).

 

Necessity of antimicrobial finishes:

Antimicrobial treatment for textile materials is necessary to fulfill the following objectives:

  • To avoid cross infection by pathogenic micro organisms
  • To control the infestation by microbes
  • To arrest metabolism in microbes in order to reduce the formation odor
  • To safeguard the textile products from staining, discoloration and quality deterioration

 

Requirements for antimicrobial finish:

Textile materials, in particular the garments are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is important to take into account the impact of stress strain, thermal and mechanical effects on the finished substrates. The following requirements need to be satisfied to obtain maximum benefits out of the finish:

  • Durability to washing, dry-cleaning and hot pressing
  • Selective activity to undesirable micro organisms
  • Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user and the environment
  • Should comply with the statutory requirements of regulating agencies
  • Compatibility with the chemical processes
  • Easy method of application. No deterioration of fabric quality
  • Resistant to body fluids; and resistant to disinfections/sterilization

 

INNOVATIVE VALUE ADDITIONS IN TEXTILE FINISHING:

Laser Technology:

It is a computer-controlled process for denim fading. This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines, dots, images, text or even pictures. In one version of this concept, a mask is used to give the desired shape that is to be applied on the fabric. The laser projects through a lens system, which expands the beam. This beam is passed through the shaped mask that comprises an aperture of the desired shape and is then deflected by a mirror to strike the textile substrate. The duration of exposure determines the final effect on the fabric.

 

The novelty of this system is that:

§  It is water free fading of denim

§  It is an ecological and economical process

§  Excellent reproducibility and higher productivity

§  Being an automatic system, chances of human error are slim

 

Ozone Fading:

Ozone can react with aliphatic and aromatic bonds. For this reason, it is possible to use ozone gas for anti-felting finish of wool, without treatment becoming economically significant. Polyester is easily damaged by ozone than polyamide, because polyester's aromatic ring system can be easily oxidized and destroyed by the ozone. This could be termed as ozone fading. The appearance of oxidative bleaching of blue, red and yellow disperse dyes caused by the effect of atmospheric zone which is similar in appearance to gas fading. This effect is most common in acetate, triacetate and polyester dyes. Heat treatment of triacetate and polyester improves fastness to ozone fading.

Ozone fading can be prevented by using anti-(oxidation) ozonate softening agent such as diphenylenediamine (also uses as gas fading inhibitor) & p-octylphenol (which has no gas fading inhibitor), which means that using the method detailed here, ozone fading can be prevented. The slight high cost of employing this finish is more than recovered with the improvement of performance characteristics of the denim garment. Furthermore, anti-ozonates could be a good "marketing" tool too. By using technique, the garment can be bleached. Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber.

 

The advantages associated with this process are:

§  Color removal is possible without losing strength

§  This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering, ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation

 

Spray Techniques:

This technique is most effective for small/medium size garment washing unit who can afford costly technology like sand blasting, etc. This technique is based on spraying/brushing the chemicals or pigments to get different effect on the garments. These techniques also save water, energy and time.

 

CONCLUSION

With advent of new technologies, the growing needs of the consumer in the wake of health and hygiene can be fulfilled without compromising the issues related to safety, human health and environment. Taping new potential antimicrobial substances, such as, Chitosan from nature can considerably minimize the undesirable activities of the antimicrobial products. Scientists all over the globe are working in the area and a few of them reported to have used antimicrobial finishes and fluoro chemicals to make the fabric having antimicrobial as well as blood repellant properties. Chitosan and fluoro polymers are reported to be most suitable finishing agents for medical wears with barriers against micro organisms and blood. To carve a niche for textile materials, this kind of value adding finishes are the need of the hour.

 

REFERENCES

·         Past, present and future of jeans and denim fashion garments, Yasini Nensey, Clothes line July 2002, pp 78-80

·         Flocking technology, AATCC symposium on Lamination and Coating 1996. pp 83-92

·         Latest machinery giving mechanical finishes for garments, Dr.G.P.Nair, Colourage, Texindia fair special, 2-4 Nov 2001, pp 69 -79

·         Encyclopedia of Textile

·         Denim Washing and finishing: A review, Purushottam De, MMTI, March 1998, pp 129 – 131

·         Encyclopaedia of Textile (Volume I, II, III)

 

 

 

ABSTRACT:

The garment industry's new drive towards high-value added products is prompted by increasing competition from other countries. Chemicals play a very significant role, be it giving a class of touch through the effects, colorful prints to soft handle, from easy care to nano finish and so on. Garment industry is developing textiles with smart functioning by using new chemical products to provide extra comfort and increased performance. For example, EASY CARE properties for garments which require minimum ironing and resist soiling and staining, ANTIMICROBIAL finishes for leisure and sportswear to prevent odor problems generated by bacteria and so on. A shift in the consumer centric thinking, trend in the supply chain, wherein it's buyers and retailers with whom the decision making rests, process houses and chemical suppliers are constantly striving to innovate or develop new products/concepts for the market and some of these innovations are discussed in the paper.

 

KEY WORDS: Chemicals, Comfort, Garment, Innovation, Value Addition etc

 

INTRODUCTION:

Finishing is the final stage in the processing of fabric or garment before it reaches the customer or user. It enhances the attractiveness and serviceability of the textile material. Finishing can broadly be divided into chemical finishing and mechanical finishing. To make salable consumer products, the fibre, yarn, fabric or readymade garments have to go through various chemical-processing sequences such as preparatory, dyeing, printing and finishing. Among these the chemical finishing assumes considerable significance because the value addition is realized through functional finishing imparting the desirable properties.

 

 

 

VALUE ADDITIONS IN TEXTILE FINISHING:

 

NANO FINISH IN TEXTILES:

Self-cleaning textiles:

The German researcher Wilhelm Barthlott of the Bonn Institute of Botany discovered, in 1990, that the lotus plant, admired for the resplendence of its flowers and leaves, owed this property of self-cleaning to the high density of minute surface protrusions. These protrusions catch deposits of soil preventing them from sticking. When it rains, the leaf has a hydrophobic reaction. Water rolls around as droplets, removing dust as it moves. Reproduced for nano technological process on the surface of woven fabrics, this self-cleaning property can be developed as a technological innovation. The fabric will have specific applications such as sails or certain garments. A self-cleaning cotton fabric known as nano care was developed and is marketed by an American Company, Nanotex and stain-resistant jeans and khakis are available since 1990. Nano care fabrics are created by modifying the cylindrical structure of the cotton fibres making up the fabric. At the nano scale, cotton fibres look like tree trunks.

Using nano techniques, these tree trunks are covered in a fuzz of minute whiskers which creates a cushion of air around the fibre. When water hits the fabric, it beads on the points of the whiskers, the beads compress the air in the cavities between the whiskers creating extra buoyancy. In technical terms, the fabric has been rendered super-non wettable or super-hydrophobic. The whiskers also create fewer points of contact for dirt. When water is applied to soiled fabric, the dirt adheres to the water far better than it adheres to the textile surface and is carried off with the water as it beads up and rolls off the surface of the fabric. Thus, the concept of “Soil-cleaning” is based on the leaves of the lotus plant.

 

UV protective finish:

The most important functions performed by the garment are to protect the wearer from the weather. However, it is also to protect the wearer from harmful rays of the sun. The rays in the wavelength region of 150 to 400 nm are known as ultraviolet radiations. The UV-blocking property of a fabric is enhanced when a dye, pigment, delustrant, or ultraviolet absorber finish is present that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and blocks its transmission from a fabric to the skin. Metal oxides like ZnO as UV-blocker are more stable when compared to organic UV-blocking agents. Hence, nano ZnO will really enhance the UV-blocking property due to their increase surface area and intense absorption in the UV region. For antibacterial finishing, ZnO nano particles scores over nano silver in cost-effectiveness, whiteness, and UV-blocking property.

Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes deflect the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a person’s UVR exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage. The extent of skin protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV radiation intensity and distribution in reference to geographical location, time of day, and season. This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun Protection Factor), higher the SPF value better is the protection against UV radiation.

 

Characteristics of nano finishing in garments:

  • Nano-processed garments have protective coating, which is water and beverage repellent
  • Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye
  • When a substance is manipulated at sizes of approximately 100 nm, the structure of the processed clothing becomes more compressed. This makes clothing stain- and dirt-resistant
  • Saving time and laundering cost
  • This technology embraces environmental friendly properties
  • Nano-materials allow good ventilation and reduce moisture absorption, resulting in enhanced breathability while maintaining the good hand feel of ordinary material
  • The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat
  • Nano-processed products are toxic free
  • Garments stay bright, fresh looking and are more durable than ordinary materials
  • Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products

 

Antimicrobial finish in textiles:

The inherent properties of the textile fibres provide room for the growth of microorganisms. Besides, the structure of the substrates and the chemical processes may induce the growth of microbes. Humid and warm environment still aggravate the problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development of odor where the fabric is in direct contact with the skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack. Basically, with a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials. It is a well-known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to its antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties of silver are now scientifically recognized. Silver ions have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate silver compound or nano particle with a fibre reactive polymer like poly (styrene comaleic anhydride).

 

Necessity of antimicrobial finishes:

Antimicrobial treatment for textile materials is necessary to fulfill the following objectives:

  • To avoid cross infection by pathogenic micro organisms
  • To control the infestation by microbes
  • To arrest metabolism in microbes in order to reduce the formation odor
  • To safeguard the textile products from staining, discoloration and quality deterioration

 

Requirements for antimicrobial finish:

Textile materials, in particular the garments are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is important to take into account the impact of stress strain, thermal and mechanical effects on the finished substrates. The following requirements need to be satisfied to obtain maximum benefits out of the finish:

  • Durability to washing, dry-cleaning and hot pressing
  • Selective activity to undesirable micro organisms
  • Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user and the environment
  • Should comply with the statutory requirements of regulating agencies
  • Compatibility with the chemical processes
  • Easy method of application. No deterioration of fabric quality
  • Resistant to body fluids; and resistant to disinfections/sterilization

 

INNOVATIVE VALUE ADDITIONS IN TEXTILE FINISHING:

Laser Technology:

It is a computer-controlled process for denim fading. This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines, dots, images, text or even pictures. In one version of this concept, a mask is used to give the desired shape that is to be applied on the fabric. The laser projects through a lens system, which expands the beam. This beam is passed through the shaped mask that comprises an aperture of the desired shape and is then deflected by a mirror to strike the textile substrate. The duration of exposure determines the final effect on the fabric.

 

The novelty of this system is that:

§  It is water free fading of denim

§  It is an ecological and economical process

§  Excellent reproducibility and higher productivity

§  Being an automatic system, chances of human error are slim

 

Ozone Fading:

Ozone can react with aliphatic and aromatic bonds. For this reason, it is possible to use ozone gas for anti-felting finish of wool, without treatment becoming economically significant. Polyester is easily damaged by ozone than polyamide, because polyester's aromatic ring system can be easily oxidized and destroyed by the ozone. This could be termed as ozone fading. The appearance of oxidative bleaching of blue, red and yellow disperse dyes caused by the effect of atmospheric zone which is similar in appearance to gas fading. This effect is most common in acetate, triacetate and polyester dyes. Heat treatment of triacetate and polyester improves fastness to ozone fading.

Ozone fading can be prevented by using anti-(oxidation) ozonate softening agent such as diphenylenediamine (also uses as gas fading inhibitor) & p-octylphenol (which has no gas fading inhibitor), which means that using the method detailed here, ozone fading can be prevented. The slight high cost of employing this finish is more than recovered with the improvement of performance characteristics of the denim garment. Furthermore, anti-ozonates could be a good "marketing" tool too. By using technique, the garment can be bleached. Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber.

 

The advantages associated with this process are:

§  Color removal is possible without losing strength

§  This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering, ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation

 

Spray Techniques:

This technique is most effective for small/medium size garment washing unit who can afford costly technology like sand blasting, etc. This technique is based on spraying/brushing the chemicals or pigments to get different effect on the garments. These techniques also save water, energy and time.

 

CONCLUSION

With advent of new technologies, the growing needs of the consumer in the wake of health and hygiene can be fulfilled without compromising the issues related to safety, human health and environment. Taping new potential antimicrobial substances, such as, Chitosan from nature can considerably minimize the undesirable activities of the antimicrobial products. Scientists all over the globe are working in the area and a few of them reported to have used antimicrobial finishes and fluoro chemicals to make the fabric having antimicrobial as well as blood repellant properties. Chitosan and fluoro polymers are reported to be most suitable finishing agents for medical wears with barriers against micro organisms and blood. To carve a niche for textile materials, this kind of value adding finishes are the need of the hour.

 

REFERENCES

·         Past, present and future of jeans and denim fashion garments, Yasini Nensey, Clothes line July 2002, pp 78-80

·         Flocking technology, AATCC symposium on Lamination and Coating 1996. pp 83-92

·         Latest machinery giving mechanical finishes for garments, Dr.G.P.Nair, Colourage, Texindia fair special, 2-4 Nov 2001, pp 69 -79

·         Encyclopedia of Textile

·         Denim Washing and finishing: A review, Purushottam De, MMTI, March 1998, pp 129 – 131

·         Encyclopaedia of Textile (Volume I, II, III)

 

 

Saturday, 24 June 2017 07:19

The world of Textile


 

“Wow! I loved that saree. I want to buy it.” “How much is it for?” “Ma’am, this saree is for Rs. 20,000.” Sunaina pays the money and gets the saree. She is very happy about her choice and flaunts her new saree at a wedding that evening. Women around her are in awe of this saree. Every one of them is not keen on buying a similar looking saree. If I was to ask you about what makes this saree so pretty, I would have got a list of answers. Some would say the color, the patterns, the design, the style of wearing it, the comfortable look, the material, etc.

 

Textile industry is all of these but more about materials. It is the material that forms the basics of every cloth you have in your wardrobe. Materials give every clothing the look and feel it has. Sunaina loved that saree not only because of the colors and design but also because of the way that material made it look. Every material is unique in its own way. This article let’s talk about a few fibers, which are not only setting trends but are also different in their own way.

Linen, is one of my favorite fibers. You might have seen lot of people around you wearing linen shirts. They usually good on every body type, tone, and has a very posh look to it. Linen is made out of the fiber from the flax plant. Though it is very strenuous process to make this fiber, but the fiber is very absorbent and clothes made out of it are valued for the coolness and freshness in hot weather. To give you a little background of the word linen, it originates from the Western Germanic language and is related to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum. The word, linen, has given rise to a lot of English words. However, the most known one is line, from the use of a linen threat to determine a straight line.

Linen is a bast fabric, i.e. a plant fabric. As already mentioned, the fabric feels cool and is smooth, which gets softer with every wash. However, it is also known for its creasing. The threads of this fabric are vulnerable to constant creasing and might break due to sharp folds. It also has a poor elasticity property.

Now, let us talk about Bamboo fibers. For textile purpose, bamboo fibers are mostly produced from the tallest bamboo species, popularly known as “Moso”. We can also see that regenerated bamboo fibers are conquering the market. They are basically known for their antibacterial nature, biodegradable properties, high moisture absorption capacity, soft smooth feel, and UV protective capability. It is mostly used in the manufacturing of undergarments, sports clothing, socks, hygienic products, UV protective clothing, etc. Due to the hollow cross section, bamboo fibers impairs breathability to the fabrics made out of it, making them cool and comfortable to wear. They can be easily dyed as well. Compared to cotton fabrics, they are more wrinkle resistant and have a better luster. The fiber is empty of any sharp spurs that could potentially cause any irritation to skin. Even, people who develop skin allergies to other natural fibers like wool and hemp do not show any such reaction on wearing bamboo next to their skin. Moreover, since the bamboo fiber is devoid of any free electrons, the fabric made out of it is antistatic, thus, fitting very well next to the skin, flowing lightly over the body without clinging to it.

As we have already spoken about cotton while comparing it to bamboo fibers, let’s talk about it in more detail. It is one of the favorite fabric of the Indians. It is known for being not so expensive material, easily available, light to wear, and like linen gives you a feeling of coolness. The cotton industry is dated somewhere between 6000 to 5000 BC. Cotton cultivation is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization. There are a variety of cotton materials found around the world, such as shiny cotton, terry cotton, etc. Open your wardrobe and you can yourself add to this list of different cotton materials. It is one of the highly produced crops in the country and the Indian textile industries are known for its cotton product. As I write this article, I have landed on the bed that has a bedspread made out of cotton.

If you would have noticed, in this article we have mainly focused on the natural fibers. As unique each of this fibers are, the manufacturing techniques also for each of them is quiet unique. Let us talk more about a few manufacturers who ensure that we get the end product made out of these materials.

Siluas, is the oldest flax mill in Lithuania and is functioning since 1928. The company’s name has been derived from a Lithuanian word siūlas, meaning a thread. They started with the manufacturing of the linen ropes, bags, and technical fabrics. However, if you go their website (www.siulas.com) or search from them online you will see that the product variety is a quite huge. They manufacture bed linen, table linen, linen garments, linen yarns, linen accessories, and much more. If interested, you can visit their online store too, www.linenfashion.com.

Let us talk about a manufacturer from our continent who is a well-known manufacturer of bamboo fabric. The manufacturer is known as China Bambro Textile (Group) Co., Ltd. The company focuses more on innovation, manufacturing of the natural, green, and biodegradable bamboo fibers, yarns, knitting fabric, woven fabric, towels, and much more. You can pay visit to this unique company at www.bambrotex.com. You can see a range of products and the kind of work they do.

Now let us move on the cotton manufacturer from our country, Khem Chand Jain. It is a well-known name in the Indian textile industry. They are known for the variety of fabrics they work with. They not only are one of the best in the country when it comes to cotton but are also known for their silk, satin, lycra, nylon, and other products. The range of cotton fabrics they work with include handloom cotton fabric, textile cotton fabric, and cotton satin fabrics. You can pay visit to their website www.khemchandjain.com to know more about these products.

Now let us know a little bit on how these fibers are processed into fabrics, yarns, and other products. Spinning is a manufacturing process where three types of fibre are converted into yarn, then fabrics, which undergo back processes such as singeing, desizing, washing, equalizing bleaching, dying, printing and finishing process to becometextiles.Ring-spinning is the most common spinning method in the world. Other systems include air-jet and open-end spinning. Open-end spinning is done using break or open-end spinning. This is a technique where the staple fibre is blown by air into a rotor and attaches to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces.

The processes to make yarn short-staple yarn (typically spun from fibres from 0.75 to 2.0") are blending, opening, carding, pin-drafting, roving, spinning, and if desiredplying and dyeing. In long staple spinning, the process may start with stretch-break of tow, a continuous "rope" of synthetic fibre. In open-end and air-jet spinning, the roving operation is eliminated. The spinning frame winds yarn a bobbin. Generally, after this step the yarn is wound to a cone for knitting or weaving.

In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds.This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled onto a cop as the carriage returns. Mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less skilled ring spinning.

The mule was an intermittent process, as the frame advanced and returned a distance of 5ft.It was the descendant of a 1779 Crompton device. It produces a softer, less twisted thread that was favored for fines and for weft.

The ring was a descendant of the Arkwright water frame of 1769. It was a continuous process, the yarn was coarser, had a greater twist and was stronger so was suited to be warp. Ring spinning is slow due to the distance the thread must pass around the ring, and similar methods have improved on this; such as flyer and bobbin and cap spinning.Sewing thread, was made of several threads twisted together, or doubled.

The pre-industrial techniques of hand spinning with spindle or spinning wheel continue to be practiced as a handicraft or hobby, and enable wool or unusual vegetable and animal staples to be creatively used.

 

We would like to continue on how the end product is manufactured and different techniques of knitting, weaving, processing, garmenting used to make the end product look like what it looks. 

 

 

 

 

 

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