Abstract

Today Ring, Rotor and Air-jet spinning system are commercially used for yarn production. Each spinning technology creates a typical yarn structure. This yarn structure determines the characteristics of the yarn itself, the characteristics in downstream processing and finally of the subsequent textile product. Textile fabrics with the softest touch can be undoubtedly produced from combed ring yarn. In order to manufacture a soft rotor yarn, the twist factor must be set low and supportive measures need to be undertaken in textile finishing. Rotor spinning has a great potential to reduce the twist factor, which is the basic prerequisite for the production of knitted fabric with a soft touch; by support of a new spin box generation and its components. Similarly the air-jet spinning system is now moving from 100% CV into new applications like CO blends and 100% CO combed for knitting. The challenge is to compete the softness of a conventional ring yarn. The main objective of this study is to compare the effect of twist level, spinning components, process parameters on yarn properties such as yarn packing density which will support in improving the fabric hand for Rotor and Air-jet yarn.The other objective of this study is to check the impact on strength and elongation due to reducing the twist.

 

Keywords: Ring spinning, Rotor Spinning, Air-jet spinning, New spinning geometry, Yarn properties, Yarn packing density, Yarn diameter

 


1           Introduction

The yarn structure is dependent primarily upon the raw material, spinning process, spinning principal, machine settings, twist, etc. The structure can be voluminous or compact, high or low hairiness; soft or hard; round or flat.

Yarn structure has a greater or lesser influence on Hand, Strength and Elongation, Resistance to abrasion and Dye absorption.

Rotor and Air-Jet yarn compare to ring spinning, offer the advantages such as High production rates, Elimination of processing stages, Considerable reduction in personnel and space and energy consumption and relative ease of automation.

On other side, Yarns produced from new spinning systems like rotor and air-jet spinning have harsher feel compared to ring spun yarn due to the different outer structure of the yarn. With the proper selection of raw material, spinning components and machinery setting, now it would be possible to compensate in order to improve softness even on new spinning systems. With this the gap between new spinning system and ring spun yarncan be narrowed down without compromising the parent benefits like better abrasion and pilling resistance of Rotor and Air jet spun yarn respectively.

 

 

1.1. Ring spinning

In ring spinning, the fibre mass in cross section of the roving is reduced by a drafting unit. The twist inserted by the turning spindle moves back and reaches thefibres leaving the drafting unit. The ring yarn process is characterized by high flexibility in the use of the raw material, the yarn count and the yarn character. Ring yarn possesses a high degree of strength and yarn hairiness. [10]

 

1.2.  Rotor Spinning

In rotor spinning, the input fibre strand is a drawn sliver. A sliver may have more than 20,000 fibres in its cross section. This means that a yarn of 100 fibres per cross section will require a total draft of 200. This amount of draft is substantially higher than that applied in ring spinning. The separated fibres are fed into the turning rotor by an air stream. The fibres are collected in the rotor groove and collected from there by the rotating open yarn end and bound in by twisting. The yarn then is pulled out of the spin box via the nozzle. Loose fibres in this moment are wrapped around the yarn, resulting in the characteristic wrapper fibres or “belly belt fibres” on the surface of the yarn. Depending on the shape of the rotor groove the yarn shape results more or less compact. The higher the centrifugal force due to rotor speed and rotor diameter, the yarn needs to be stronger and has less elongation.[10]

1.3. Air-jet Spinning

In Air- jet spinning, a sliver is fed to the drafting system; the drafted sliver enters a spinning nozzle. The leading end of the fibres forms the parallel yarn core; the free fibre ends are wound around the yarn core by the air in the spinning nozzle. The Air- jet yarn is then wound onto a package. The air-jet-spun yarn structure consists of core fibres without significant twist and covering fibres with a genuine twist, which ultimately produces the corresponding yarn tenacity. The specific yarn structure results in yarn tenacity between that of a ring-spun yarn and that of a rotor-spun yarn.[10]

 

Ring Spinning

Rotor Spinning

 Air-jet Spinning

   

 

- Most flexible in raw

- Material and count

- High tenacity

- High hairiness

-High optical evenness

- Low variation in tenacity

- Designable hairiness

- High abrasion resistance

- High volume

- Unique low hairiness

- High volume

- Low tendency for staff

- High abrasionresistance

Fig.1. Characteristics of the yarns produced from different spinning system

2. Part I – Rotor spun yarn

The study is carried out on rotor yarn with same material ,same count and same conditions

2.1. Latest Rotor Spin Box Technology

 

The possibility to reduce twist in spinning is limited by the spinning stability. The cohesion of fibres gets less with reduced twist, so that the spinning process gets interrupted by a yarn break more and more frequently resulting in loss of efficiency of the process.

The newest spin box technology applied for the trials in this respect allowed additional twist reduction compared to older technologies, which are still present in the market.

This better spinning stability is due to:

–   Reduced spinning tension thanks to latest spin box geometry, new TWISTstop arrangement.

–   Lower spinning tension allows to reduce possible twist multiplier

–   With the correct spinning component it is possible to produce soft yarn

–   TWISTstop insert with 3 twist-retaining bars for high twist-retaining effect

–   High spinning stability

Effect of twist reduction

-          Less twist typically results in softer yarn

-          Less twist at same rotor speed results in higher productivity

-          Evenness and count variation gets better, as well as the imperfections

 

Fig.2. Latest Spin Box

 

3. Rotor yarn properties evaluation

The basic study is conducted with Ne 30’s cotton yarn with different twist levels to see the impact on physical yarn properties such as yarn strength, elongation, yarn hairiness and yarn packing density.

3.1. Yarn strength and elongation

 

Graph 4.1 Strength-Elongation

 

Table 2 and graph 4.1 show the increase of yarn strength and elongation of yarn with increase in twist multiplier (TM) value. In the other hand, graph 4.2 shows also how the TM of yarn influences the hairiness of yarn. The hairiness has great impact on yarn softness.  Low twist causes a more open yarn structure, with the result that single fibers spread out of the surface of the yarn structure and thus achieve better softness.

3.2. Yarn hairiness

 

Graph 4.2: Hairiness Curve

In rotor spinning, the yarn hairiness can be designed by means of a wide range of spinning elements like rotor groove and draw-off nozzle. It has been verified during this study that today with latest spin box there is the possibility

Table 2. Machine parameter influences softness of yarn

Sample

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

Alpha [αe.]/αm

(3.2) 97

(3.6) 109

(4.0) 121

(4.5) 136

(5.0) 151

Delivery [m/min]

162

144

130

115

104

T/M

693

778

864

971

1078

Strength [cN/tex]

10.63

11.41

12.17

12.92

13.00

Elongation [%]

5.08

5.31

5.45

5.75

5.95

USTER CV%

16.05

15.95

16.03

15.74

15.84

USTER Hairiness

4.71

4.59

4.44

4.29

4.06

Package Density g/cm3

0.4

0.41

0.43

0.45

0.47

Yarn SEM images

         

to produce yarn with a lower twist multiplier without affecting spinning stability.

Table 4. Statistical test for rotor yarn properties  

Test

Analysis

Yarn (D1 to D5)

Significance

Strength cN/tex

MS

4.74

 

F

48.76

 

P- value

0.000**

Significant

F crit

2.866

 

Elongation %

MS

0.59

 

F

8.61

Significant

P- value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.86

 

CVm %

MS

0.0841

 

F

4.711

Significant

P- value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.86

 

Neps

MS

32210.06

 

F

7.30

Significant

P- value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.86

 

Hairiness

MS

0.31

 

F

118.89

Significant

P- value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.86

 

Diameter

MS

0.000315

 

F

366.58

Significant

P- value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.866

 

Yarn package Density

MS

0.004056

 

F

289.71

Significant

P-value

0.000**

 

F crit

2.866

 

** Significance at (0.05)

 


3.3. Yarn packing density and diameter


 

Graph 4.3: Rotor yarn packing density and Diameter

 

The packing density, i.e. the fiber distribution in a yarn cross section, can significantly influence the properties and quality of the yarn. Thus, the need for precise and concise information about packing density becomes a must for an in-depth understanding of yarn structure and hence yarn mechanics. However from graph 4.3 it is also clear that twist factor is responsible for packing density changes. For a given yarn count, fibers in the yarn with a higher twist factor are distributed in less scattered way, and the peak of packing density curves will shift towards the yarn axis. Similar impact has been observed with diameter change:

Increased twist results in increased yarn density and reduced yarn diameter.

During the twisting process, an external uniaxial tensile load P along the axis of yarn must exist, since twisting cannot process without tension. This tensile load can be conveyed to the constituent fibers of the yarn. Assuming that the fibers are perfectly flexible members, incapable of resisting any axial compressive forces, the stresses M (a bending moment), V (shear force) and T (a torsional moment), will all vanish. Therefore, the only fiber force that needs to be considered is the tension acting in the direction parallel to the fiber axis Pr. Since the individual contribution of Pr to the total load Pc in compression is,

 

 

Fig.3. Stress analysis of fibers in spun yarn

 

P per fiber = Pr  sinΦr                                                 (1)

Where, Φr is the fiber helix angle.

Therefore the total load Pc can be calculated

Pc =                                                     (2)

Where, m is the total amount of fibers in the yarn cross section. Equation 2 states that if the axis tension carried by each fiber is multiplied by the sine of the helix angle of the fiber and all such products are summed. The total will represent the compression load acting on the yarn in the direction normal to the yarn axis. Apparently, the higher the twist level, the higher the helix angle Φ and in turn the more prominent the compressive load. This is how a more compact yarn structure is created. [26][27].

 

4. Part 2:  AIR JET SPINNING

2           Role of Spinning Systems in improving softness

Yarns produced from new spinning systems like air-jet have harsher feel as compared to ring spun yarn due to their different outer structure. With the proper selection of raw material, spinning components and machinery setting, now it would be possible to compensate in order to improve softness even on new spinning systems. With this, the gap between new spinning system and ring spun yarn can be narrowed down without compromising the parent benefits like better abrasion and pilling resistance of Air-jet spun yarn.[10][17][20]

2.1           Development of Soft Yarn

Softness is an important characteristic for those products which come directly in contact with skin .Ways to produce soft yarns.

          Raw material i.e. to use fine fibres.

Table 1.  Machine parameter influences softness of yarn

 

Sample

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

Machine

J 20

J 20

J 20

J 20

J 20

J 20

Yarn [Ne]/Nm

30/51

30/51

30/51

30/51

3/51

30/51

Delivery [m/min]

460

420

380

340

380

380

Spin Tip in mm

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

Air pressure                                   

Strength [cN/tex]

4.3

11.7

4.3

13.4

4.3

14.8

4.3

15.4

6.0

15.6

6.0

15.5

Elongation [%]

5.1

5.5

6.0

6.3

6.2

6.2

USTER CV%

13.9

13.8

14.3

14.3

14.4

14.1

USTER (H%)

3.8

3.5

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.4

Packing density

0.44

0.46

0.48

0.50

0.52

0.51

Yarn images

           
                         

          Process parameters i.e. spinning under lesser tension.

          Incorporation of low twist & plying.

          Production hollow yarns using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers.

Selection of right spinning technology (ring, rotor, Air-jet) [10][2]

 

2.2           Improvement in Softness during Spinning

          To improve softness of air-jet yarn with modified yarn structure with newly developed components and process parameter

          To improve fabric feels of air-jet yarn by chemical finishing e.g. Softeners to match with Ring.

Comparative analysis of yarns, fabrics and garments with different subjective and objective tests

2.3            Spin Nozzle Housing

The spin nozzle is the heart of the air-jet spinning technology. The bottom part of the spin nozzle consists of a fiber-feeding element (FFE), to which a drafted and condensed sliver is delivered. The prepared sliver is spun into yarn due to the effect of pressurized air inside the spinning nozzle. In the nozzle housing there is a twist element with holes through which pressurized air is supplied at a volume equal to that of the diameter of the spin air holes and air pressure. Air is discharged at an angle to generate a whirl wind. Fibres are fed through the spin tip with the diameter of nozzle. Air rotates around the spin tip and creates a twist in the fibres. [10][20]

               Fig. 3 Spin nozzle housing

 

3           Air-jet Yarn Properties Evaluation

The basic study is conducted with Ne 30’s cotton yarn with different twist levels to see the impact on physical yarn properties such as yarn strength, elongation, yarn hairiness and yarn packing density and influencing together the softness of the yarns. [31][1][9]

 

3.1           Yarn Strength and Elongation 

Table 1 is an overview of the different trials to improve the softness of the air-jet yarns. Different delivery speeds, different air pressure and spin tip diameter influencing the yarn properties. E5 and E6 with low delivery speed and high air pressure results in highest yarn strength and elongation. The yarn packing density is also on the high side. [31][9]

 

 

 

3.1Strength & Elongation

 

Graph 4.1 Strength & Elongation curve

From table 1 and graph 4.1 shows effect of delivery speed and air pressure (influencing twist level) on air-jet yarn. Lower speed and/or higher air pressure increases simultaneously elongation and strength due to the higher twist effect on the yarn. On the other hand; graph 4.2 shows the influence on hairiness of yarn at the same time. The soft feel of fabric can be better if ∑1+2 hairiness value is higher. Low twist causes more hairiness in the yarn due to the open structure, visible as well in the yarn packing density. [31]

 

3.2    Yarn Hairiness

However, low hairiness is a drawback where a large number of protruding fiber ends contribute to a soft hand. First of all, air-jet spun yarns can now be produced with significantly lower twist multipliers than previously, without any adverse effect on spinning stability. [31][8]

Graph 4.2: Hairiness Curve

 

3.3                     Air-jet Yarn Packing Density &DiameterThe impact of air pressure ,delivery speed and spin tip is visible on yarn packing density and yarn diameter  .Factors affecting  real yarn diameter are essentially those that affect yarn density or fibre compactness. In general yarn become softer as the density become lower and diameter become higher

Keeping material and process same  

 

Graph 4.3: Air-jet yarn packing density and diameter

Table 3. Statistical results for Air-jet yarn properties

Test

Analysis

Yarn (E1to E6)

Significance

Strength cN/tex

MS

12.03

 

F

2178.15

Significant

P- value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

Elongation %

MS

1.10

 

F

539.72

Significant

P- value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

CVm %

MS

0.34

 

F

2.40

Not

P- value

0.066

Significant

F crit

2.62

 

Neps

MS

18764.12

 

F

72.73

Significant

P- value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

Hairiness

MS

0.1200

 

F

11.39

Significant

P- value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

Diameter

MS

0.0007

 

F

117.76

Significant

P- value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

Yarn packing Density

MS

0.0041

 

F

130.9

Significant

P-value

0.000

 

F crit

2.62

 

**  Significant at (0.05)

 

 

Conclusion:

An enumeration of various research revealed that all the studies were interested in the improving the fabric hand for rotor and air-jet yarn .The objective of this work is to validate and analyses the impact on  the yarn packing density and yarn diameter of rotor and air-jet yarns with determining the more influential intrinsic yarn parameters like strength, elongation etc . In this study, the authors provided a base to carry out further investigation in knitted  fabric for fabric hand due to spinning and processing . The twist increase results in a free air volume reduction hence proportionally impact yarn packing density .A statistical study allowed the authors, by using ANOVA test to retain the most influential factors in the yarn packing density, the yarn count and the twist in yarn by keeping the strength and elongation at practical acceptable level as per requirement of downstream process .

 

References

1.      Anindya Ghosh, ‘Studies on structural aspects of ring, rotor Air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns’ National conference on Emerging trends in textile, fiber & apparel engineering, Govt. college of engineering, Berhampore, West Bengal, March 200 6.

2.      Rameshkumar C., et. al., Comparative studies on ring rotor and vortex yarn knitted fabrics, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 8, No4, December 2008.

3.      Zhuan Yong Zou, A Study of Generating Yarn Thin Places of Murata Vortex Spinning, Textile Research Journal 2009 79: 129.

4.      Guldemet Basal, vortex spun yarn vs. Air-jet spun yarn, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 3, No3, September 2003.

5.      Huseyin Gazi Ortlek and Levent Onal, Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Knitted Fabrics Made of Vortex-Spun Viscose Yarns, Fibers and Polymers 2008, Vol.9, No.2, 194-199.

6.      Rieter Com4 Yarns*

7.      Carl Lawrence, Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology

8.      W.Klein, New Spinning System, Vol., 5, The Textile institute, First Edition, 1999.

9.      T.K. Sinha and Tanveer Malik, A Study to Reduce the Stiffness of Air Vortex Yarn, Department of Textile Technology, Shri Vaishnav Institude of Technology and Science

10.  J.W.S.Hearle, P.Grosberg, S.Backer, Structural Mechanics of Fiber , Yarns, and Fabrics, Department of Textile Technology, The

11.  X. Y. Jiang, J. L. Hu, K. P.S. Cheng and R. Postle, Determining the Cross-Sectional Packing Density of Rotor Spun Yarns, Textile Research Journal 2005, 75, 233

12.  G. Chandramouli, kumaraguru college of Technology, An investigation of Air Vortex Yarn with Different Blend Proportion, Journal of the Textile Association, March-April 2012, page. 376-371.

13.  Arindam Basu, Yarn structure - properties relationship, The South India Textile Reserch Association, coimbatore 641 014, India 

 

14.  G KTyagi and SShaw, Structural and characteristic variations in viscose ring- and air-jet spun yarns as a consequence of draw frame speed and its preparatory process, The Technological Institute of Textile & Science Bhiwani 127 021, India. Received 15 November 2010; revised received and accepted 3 February 2011.

Times organized “Global Sports Textile Forum” on 22nd December 2016- a half day conference for entire sportech value chain. The conference served a platform for knowledge sharing and bringing together the key stakeholders to discuss latest trends, innovations, technologies, opportunities & challenges in Sportech Sector & serve as a bridgein between manufacturers and stakeholders.

Further the honorable Textile Commissioner of India, Dr. Kavita Gupta delivered a welcome addressed on “Sport Textile Industry in India”. She mentioned in her speech, currently India contributes a very miniscule amount of sport textile to entire globe production and we have huge potential to capitalized this untapped opportunities. Indian manufacturers should consider sport textile as one of the investment opportunities. Mr. AvinashMayekar, MD & CEO of Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. briefed on “Current market size of sport industry, issues & challenges faced and strategy for the growth of sport textile industry” and gave various opportunities to be look into sport textiles from investment point of view.Mr. ArvindSinha, National President of Textile Association of India put light on “Current demand supply gap and huge opportunities for sport textile in international and domestic markets”. According to him Indian players needs to invest in best technology and for larger volume.

In the 2nd session, Mr. RajkumarAgarwal-Managing Director of SVG Fashions discussed on various innovation in sportswear. He briefed on various requirements of sports sector and how the sport wear manufacturers are continuously innovating as per industries demand. Dr. AnupRakshit, Executive Director of Indian Technical Textile Association covered various performance parameters of fibers used in high ends sportech goods. He discussed various properties and norm to be followed in manufacturing of sportech goods.

In 3rd session Mr. E. Sivakumar, Head of Technical Textile at Archroma India discussed on innovative dyes and chemicals for sport textiles. He covered the various properties which make them suitable for sportswear. Further Mr. Edward Menezes-Director of Rossari Biotech Ltd.threw light on the topic “Role of specialized fabric finishes in Sportwear”. He mentioned that sport sector is evolving and there is huge demand in sportswear with properties like anti-odor, anti-sweat and many more. He covered various fabric finishes which help in enhancing the performance of sport textiles.

Further Mr. AvinashMayekar chaired the panel discussion on the topic “how to increase sport textile consumption in India”. And the panelist were Mr. ArvindSinha, Dr. MrunalChoudhari (Director of Wool Research Association), Mr. RajkumarAgarwal and Dr. AnupRakshit. The Panel discussion concluded with agenda to create awareness and identifythe huge potential that lies in sport textiles sector in India.

And 4th session Mr. MakarandRege, Director of Suvin HR Solutions discussed the “Learning of leadership skills through Cricket” .He mentioned that successful teams have effective leaders and importance of this role is evident in all categories of sports.

 

The event concluded with question and answer session and followed by vote of thanks by Times representative. 

Thursday, 22 June 2017 09:56

The rupee has started declining…..

The rupee has started declining…..

 

The rupee has started a downward movement once again since 9th December which is almost a month after the USA Elections results were out. The rupee had strengthened earlier between 28th November and 8th December 2016.  The movement of the rupee-dollar rate is depicted in the chart below.

 

 

 

The rupee appeared to be fairly resilient when the FCNR (B) redemption became due and was well managed by the RBI. The shock however has been administered in the form of the US Elections where there is a perception that the new government would be more ‘closed’. Also it is expected that the Donald Trump Government will be aggressive with fiscal stimulus to the economy which in turn will raise the spectre of inflation thus prompting the Federal Reserve to increase interest rates further.

 

The Federal Reserve had increased rates by 25 bps on the 14th of December which has led to expectations now of at least another 50 bps rate hike in 2017 with some forecasts going up to 100 bps. Higher rates in the US tend to impact flow of investments which in turn has also affected the rupee.

 

Some of the factors responsible for these movements are:

 

1.       FII equity flows have been negative $ 3 bn in the period November 9-December 22.

2.       FII debt flows were impacted significantly by these developments with the decline being double at $ 6 bn during this period. Here, the higher interest rate regime in the USA coupled with declining interest rate regime in India would tend to exacerbate the situation further going ahead.

3.       The trade balance has been stable but is expected to widen given that exports still remain lackluster and imports would keep expanding as oil prices increase and put pressure on the imports bill.

4.       The US final decision on outsourcing is also in the minds of the market as the Indian IT sector could be impacted in case an extreme measure is taken by the government.

5.       Forex reserves have decline by a little over $ 5 bn between November 4th and December 9. This could be higher in the following two weeks (for which data will be available with a lag).

 

Under these conditions we maintain our earlier stance that the rupee will be in the Rs 69-69.50/$ bracket by March with both the foreign funds flows and crude oil prices determining the pace of decline. 

 

 

Reference : CARE Rating 

Entrepreneurship is all about risk. But research has shown that most successful entrepreneurs are masters at analyzing and minimizing/avoiding risk. Just like investors, they view entrepreneurship not as a business of taking risks, but as one of mitigating and minimizing risk.It not only focuses on the upside of your enterprise, but builds in security to limit the downside.


Textile 
and leather, which are labour-intensive industries, are facing the heat of centre's decision to demonetise the Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 currencies. Companies are not able to pay wages to workers and not able to procure raw materials.While agreeing that the centre's move will stream line the system, it will increase the cost of doing business.

 

Of the around six lakh workers, 40-50 per cent are migrants. Many of these workers don't have bank accounts. These workers usually get paid an amount of around Rs 300-400 a day.

 

The challenge is to pay regular wages to the labour & other resources which are cash intensive.

Due to withdrawal limits & availability of cash with Banks , entrepreneurs are finding tough to run their businesses. Many entrepreneurs are at risk of huge loss in business or even closing their business due to limited resources.

This calls for innovation of business model to derisk. Businesses often find it harder to determine what changes to the model will work than whether a new product or technology will catch on.Less well understood is that these value drivers are themselves affected by sharp changes in, for example, demand and supply. In thinking through changes to the business model, therefore, it is essential to examine the major sources of risk to the model and how the model will handle them.

Thinking in these terms quickly demonstrates the potential for companies to create value by redesigning their business models to reduce their risks. It can also reveal unsuspected opportunities for creating value by adding risk—if the company is well-placed to manage it.

 

Lower Business Risks :

Often companies that have lowered their business model risk have done so by delaying production commitments, transferring risk to other parties, or improving the quality of their information.

Controlled speed of Production & SCM Innovation :

Speeding up the production process is the most obvious way to do this. It usually means producing in higher-cost locations, which goes against supply chain orthodoxy. But surprisingly often the gains from reducing demand uncertainty outweigh the added costs. This approach lies behind some very remarkable innovations.

Consider the famous Spanish clothing retailer Zara. Branded clothing companies have traditionally focused on managing costs by organizing their sourcing, production, and distribution as efficiently as possible. As a result, they may need as long as 12 to 18 months to design, produce, and deliver a new line of clothing. That means they have to make big bets on future consumer preferences and demand. Bearing this risk has consequences for the bottom line through inventory write-downs (if the clothes don’t sell) or for the top line through stock-outs (if people want more than you’ve made).

Zara reduced the likelihood of these consequences by designing a hyperfast supply chain that turns a new line around in two to four weeks—making it much easier to keep pace with consumer preferences. Of course, there is a price: The company makes most of its products in an expensive location (southern Europe), ships them to stores often (weekly), and uses an expensive mode of transportation (air). But Zara’s success demonstrates clearly that a focus on managing demand risks can trump a focus on costs.

Note that Zara did not discover anything new about the risks involved in retailing apparel. Everyone knows that customers are fickle and hard to read. Zara’s insight was simply that a faster cycle time meant that decisions about product specifications and quantities needn’t be made so far in advance, and fresher data would be available when the company did have to make commitments.

Reducing cycle time allows some companies to completely eliminate risks arising from demand uncertainty.

Review  Business Contracts :

Another way to manage risk—especially asset-related risk—is to pass the exposure on to someone else. This usually involves altering your contracts with the other stakeholders in your value chain: employees, suppliers, and customers.

In the late 1990s Blockbuster handed off risk to suppliers: It revolutionized the highly competitive video rental industry by shifting away from fixed-price contracts (under which each VHS tape cost Blockbuster $60) and toward revenue sharing with the major movie studios. Under the old arrangement, the studios took little risk in terms of a mismatch between demand and supply: They received $60 for a tape no matter how many times it was rented. Blockbuster assumed all the risk of acquiring a dud and had to hedge its bets by buying fewer tapes.

Under the new arrangement, Blockbuster paid only $5 to $10 up front but shared about 50% of its revenues with the studios. This changed the studios’ information sharing, pricing, and marketing incentives, with the result that Blockbuster could stock more tapes, increasing the availability of hit movies. The company’s market share rose from 25% to 38%, and profits for the industry grew by up to 20%.

Data is King :

Sometimes it isn’t possible to radically shorten the production process or alter your relationship with other stakeholders in your value chain. In that case, you can improve the quality of the information on which you base your commitments.

Even when companies can reduce risk using the classic approaches, they should consider upgrading their information-gathering capabilities, because speeding up production or rewriting contracts often creates a new risk. Because its employees work from home and are independent contractors, it is much harder to verify that they are appropriately trained to answer calls.

 

Add Risk to Derisk in future :

Many people regard risk only as something to eliminate—an undesirable commitment  of managing the resources and capabilities needed to deliver a product or service. But as the economist Robert Merton has often pointed out, one can also argue that companies create value by being better at managing risk than their competitors are. The implication is that if you are better than others at managing a particular risk, you should take on more of that risk.

The history of innovation demonstrates that quite a few companies have made money by taking on more risk—typically by changing the terms of their contracts with suppliers or customers. Sometimes trying to avoid a risk actually increases it, and you can better manage it by being willing to own more of it.

Advantages and Challenges

The risk-driven innovation we describe has one important advantage over other forms of innovation: It’s much cheaper. Innovating products and technologies often involves generating a lot of ideas and then trimming the list down through discussion, voting, and prototyping. Multiple iterations of prototypes, customer feedback, and experimentation are necessary. Significant R&D expenditures are often involved.Risk-driven innovation, however, can be approached in a systematic way and with few expenditures, and relatively clear and credible estimates can be made of the potential benefits and costs.

You might think that such innovations aren’t a sustainable form of competitive advantage. But experience shows that they actually can be, because copying someone else’s business model innovation often involves changing processes that are embedded in the culture of an organization—and substantially changing the cultural DNA is harder than adopting a new technology or design or entering a new market.

Key References :

·         www.hbr.org

·         www.forbes.com

·         www.startersquad.com

·         Textile articles in Magazines & Newspaper

 

·       *Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author in his personal capacity of knowledge   & perspectives on the mentioned subject .

 

 

 

Kudos to P.V. Sindhu and Sakshi Malik for winning medals for India in Rio Olympics 2016.Achievements of young athletes have kindled aninterest in sports activities among India’s youth. Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi announced the decision to set up a task force for effective participation of Indian players in the next three Olympics which is expected to set the tone for India’s preparation for the global sports events in future. Thismay become a turning point for various sports in India and result in adoption of a scientific approach, including professional gear to enhance performance.

Besides, increasing interest in fitness and healthy lifestyle is also giving boost to activewear clothing.Borderline between sportswear and casualwear has blurred and the sporty look is favoured for sport related activities including morning - evening walk andat gymnasiumtoo. It is now perfectly acceptable for people to wear their outfit at work and social settings. This has created an all new category of clothing aptly called ‘athleisure’.

The global market for sports and fitness clothing is expected to grow about 4.5%CAGRto reach a value of US $ 200 bn in year 2020. Europe and North America represent 75 percentmarket share of total world market. India is also witnessing a rapid growth in this industry. The nascentactive wear market in India is estimated at US $450 million at retail level, growing at 12-15 percent CAGR above the average growth of world market trend. There is a huge potential for the domestic textile industry to supply functional fabrics as bulk of this demand is still met by imports from the Fareast. International brands marketing active wear clothing often lament lack of competitiveness of Indian suppliers to fulfil the requirements in terms of quality and cost. The demand and supply gap is expected to widen in future due to lack of processing capability for man-made fibre based fabrics in India.

What is Active wear?

There are various definitions of activewear and some of them are …” Fashion that functions”;” Sportswear that has evolved and developed to meet modern sporting and fitness needs as well as style needs”,” Garments which are designed to perform during activity”; meaning each promises a high degree of functionality which requires equally innovative textiles and fastenings to aid performance’., etc… In a nutshell three key attributes ofactive wear are Performance, Versatility and Style. Activewear apparels are a mixture of clothes which fulfil the purpose of an active life and casual social life. These clothes are more flexible in terms of easy and free body movements and lend comfort with stylish looks in harmony with contemporary fashion trends.

The sole purpose of activewear is to enhance the performance of athlete or wearerby providing him / her various supportive functions such as breathability, absorbency, moisture transfer, stretch to fit, odour resistance. Active wear apparels aredivided into three distinct categories:first for next to skin garments having the advance moisture transport and antibacterial properties, second is thermal wear or light weight protective garments and third is an outerwear with UV resistance and protective outer layer from extreme climatic conditions like extreme cold, extreme heat and wind.

 

 

Market scenario

The definition of comfort in women’s wear is changing day by day and this is replicated by transforming preferences with upscaling activewear such as daywear and weekend wear. On top of it, the clothes for hanging out with friendsalso act as a multitasking outfit. Increasing sports participation, fitness consciousness and greater adaptability towards casual workwear are the reason of higher share of womenswear in active wear market.

Women’s participation in sports is growing gradually in India. As per Business Standardreview (Mar, 2015), rural female participation in sports has increased from 0.245 million in 2008-09 to 1.07 million in 2013-14. In addition, schools are also encouraging students by including sports and yoga in their curriculum and thus enhancing the interest in sports.

Menswear share in active wear market is 85-90% and growing at 10% CAGR whereas womenswearconstitutes 10-12% share and growing at 40% CAGR since the base is small which clearly shows the growth potential. It is observed by large sports brands such as Puma, Adidas, and Reebok that Indian women shoppers are spending more on activewear clothing.Nike womenswear business is predicted to grow up to US$11 billionby 2020 which is at the faster rate than menswear (USA TodayNov, 2015).

Consumer Perspective and leading players

Nowadays the main motive of the consumers for using active wear is not limited to sportswear or workout gear.Active wear fulfils the consumer needfor comfort in all activities. Alongwith comfort, body fitting, easy washability, quality and durability are other key properties which consumer demand while selecting active wear-in short, function with fashion.

In the past cotton used to be the preferred fibre, however now engineered synthetic fibres such as polyester and nylon have taken majority share with an extent of more than 90%. Nylon has got an immense importance in this segment due toits excellent moisture transfer properties, however high cost of nylon limits its usage to niche applications such as swimwear.

Nike, Adidas, Puma are the Global brands dominate India market,local brands such as HRX, 2GO (Brandix)are active in categories of sportswear, gym wear, loungewear and swimwear.

Manufacturing technologies

Active wear textile is manufactured by any of the major technologies viz. circular knitting, warp knitting, weaving and processing.

Circular knitting:Seamless and tubular form of fabric make circular knitting the most widely accepted method of fabric formation. Fabrics used in the next-to-skin applications are made up on circular knitting machine with a variety of raw materials like cotton, blends and manmade fibres. Mayer &Cie, Karl Mayer, Santoni are among the major circular knitting machine manufacturers. Cost competitiveness and versatility towards the utilisation of raw material are the key benefits of circular knitting. Circular knitting machines are used in making fabrics where minimum stretch are needed.

Warp Knitting: Warp knitted machines provide an extensive range of dimensionally stable, light weight structures, open mesh structures, structure incorporated with elastane etc. which are difficult to produce on circular knitted and woven technologies. Mainly filaments and blends are suitable for manufacturing fabrics on this technology. Karl Mayer and some of the Taiwan machine manufacturers supply warp knitting equipment. ATE represents Karl Mayer in India and has set up an application demonstration centre at Surat.

Woven: Owing to use of 100 percent synthetic filaments (Nylon or Polyester), high speed waterjet weaving is considered the most popular and viable technology. The woven fabrics are mainly used for making outerwear having rugged applications. Tsudakoma and Toyota are renowned water jet weaving machine manufacturers.

Processing: Coating and lamination are twomain technologies used for processing woven or knitted fabrics with special finishes. Finishes such as antimicrobial, water repellent etc. are provided in coating machine. For breathable or water proof fabric, membrane (mainly Poly Urethane - PU) is laminated on lamination machine. Monforts, IL-Sung, Coatema, Matex are some of the major coating machine suppliers. Lacom, Santee, Fly from Korea and Reliant are major lamination machine suppliers.

Apart from machinery, the type of fibre also plays an important role in determining the functionality of activewear fabrics. Major fibres such as Nylon and Polyester are used along with elastane for high stretch applications.In some moisture transfer fabrics,engineered yarns are also being used along with finishing treatments.

India market – key growth drivers

Growing demand for sports, yoga activities, fast changing lifestyle, aggressive marketing by multinationals using celebrity brand ambassadors and associating themselves with national sporting activitiesare some of the key trends in the Indian activewear market.

More number of international sport events such as Common Wealth Games, Davis Cup,International Yoga Day, local fixtures such as Mumbai Marathonand mass popularity of cricket, badminton,and even golf among upper strata of society, in addition to domestic league matches such as IPL and IHL, has resulted in high level ofawareness about sportswear in India.

Availability of active wear online and offline is adding to its popularity.Recently,Adidas received an approval to bring in FDI to set up company-owned outlets in large cities. It plans to open 50 stores across India. Reebok is following suit.

Along with Metro cities, there is a growth in Tier II and Tier III cities as well. Smaller towns with small base are showing higher growth of penetration.

Active wearhasanextremelybright,thoughchallengingfutureascustomerexpectsglobalquality,latesttechnologyataffordablepricepointsinIndia.

 

 

Mamta Dhanshetty, M. Tech(VJTI) is a Research Associate(Technical Textiles) at Gherzi Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd

1050 Exhibitors, 38 Countries, 17 Chapters, 11 Exhibiting Halls, 24 Product Launches over 6 days period of exhibition makes India ITME-2016 the largest and apex exhibition for Textile machinery and Technology in India and one of the most awaited business event for the textile industry members.

State of Gujarat and State of Karnataka, two key states in India having strong presence of Textile industry are participating in this event as state partners.  This once in 4 year mega event is also supported by Department of Heavy Industry, Govt. of India, Textile Ministry, Government of India and Government of Maharashtra as State Partner making it the most important platform for the government officials and the industry members to interact and work together.  This is the only Textile Engineering exhibition having such a strong presence and participation from the State & Central governments whereby idea of “Make in India” in textile engineering segment shall be promoted to the visiting foreign business visitors and also propagate government schemes and incentives for the textile industry in India.

India ITME-2016 received goodwill messages from President of India, Hon’ble Prime Minister, Hon’ble Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Hon’ble Textile Minister of state of Gujarat and State of Karnataka, Textile Ministry, Dept. of Heavy Industry, Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), Govt. of India indicating the interest and importance of this international event for our Country at the government levels as well.

India ITME Society is 4 decade old nonprofit organization with a vision to support the industry through exhibitions facilitating investments and joint ventures and technology transfer.  Foreign & domestic business visitors, Academicians, Research Scholars, Govt. officials from neighboring regions such as Philippians, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Iran, Turkey, Brazil, Indonesia, Poland, Malaysia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Egypt is visiting India ITME and looking at India as an opportunity for business & investment.  India is not only a strong market but also is explored as a hub for training and skill development by many neighboring Countries in the field of Textile & Textile Engineering. 

We have senior officials from Universities in Bangladesh, Philippians, Myanmar, Ethiopia etc. visiting. India ITME-2016 to interact and meet with Indian educational institutions & Technology and graduate students/ faculty exchange program.  We have very strong presence & participation from prestigious institutes in India & overseas such as The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani (TIT), DKTE Society's Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (ICT), The Textile Institute of UK , National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), & design from MIT Institute.

India being one of the emerging economies, the demand for textile machinery is growing.  The growth of industry is based on increasing demand of textile & apparel market in India.  The textile sector is one of the largest contribution to India’s exports with approximately 11% of total exports.  India’s overall textile exports during F.Y.2015-2016 stood at US$ 40 billion & the industry is expected to reach US$223 billion by 2021.

The industry being the second largest employer after agriculture it is utmost necessary that Indian textile machine manufacturing industry has to strengthen its base for quality output accepted at international level. India is now developing in multifolds in most of the sectors specially in the spinning machinery manufacturing segments. This once in 4 year mega exhibition is a trend setter and gateway to new customers in urban Indian market as well as in the rural market.  All the major machinery manufacturers from across the world are converging under one roof at India ITME-2016.

However, India ITME-2016 is not just about business.  It is also about creating a platform for the students and the craftsman of our Country to showcase their talent and creativity to the world.  Amidst whirring of the modern machineries, “Weavers of Maharashtra” shall display the magic of creating beautiful weavers of HIMROO, PAITHANI, BLOCK PRINTING, TIE DYEING. – Traditional fabric craft of state of Maharashtra.

Photo art gallery displaying “wild life and ethic India” by renowned photographers Shri. Dilip Bhatia & Shri. Hari Santharam shall add to the visual delights of the visitors.

Enjoy the creative design from the students of MIT Pune & Experience the colours fabrics, fusion of modern and esthetic fashion from National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT). Put a stitch & participate in creating a global textile artwork at India ITME-2016.

Such an opportunity and experience comes to our Country only once in 4 years. 

You are cordially invited to this world of modern technology and opportunity.

Welcome to India ITME-2016 from 3rd – 8th Dec.2016 at NESCO grounds.

 

 

Introduction

Wool research association (WRA) is cooperative research association registered against the Society Registration Act 1860, established in 1963 by the woolen industry under the auspices of CSIR, Government of India. At present it is administrative under the Ministry of Textile for last few decades 

            WRA is the onlyresearch body fully dedicated to research, consultancy, testing& evaluation, training and education, etc. in the field of Woolen Textiles. WRA has been rendering useful services and technical support to both organized and decentralized sector including medium, small, and tiny and cottage sector of woolen textile industry.WRA pioneered in development and technology absorption in the country in respect of computer color matching, Computer added designs, various product and process development.

            Beside research and development in the field of the Wool and Woolen textiles WRAprovides technical assistance to decentralized woolen sector for establishment of common facility centers, Scouring and spinning of indigenousChokla, Deccani, Marwari, Pathanwadi . etc. and other coarse and very coarse wool. One of the important activities of WRA is to render useful services to testing and evaluation of wool, eco testing, standardization and formulation of specifications, quality assurance, etc.

            WRA also provides technical assistance to various projects undertaken by the Central Wool Development Board (CWDB) and the other State owned Wool Boards for improvements of wool and woolen textiles. WRS imparts training for the workers, artisans, supervisory, staffs, technologists & scientists in Woolen and worsted industry.

Facilities

                WRA is well equipped with necessary infrastructure in research and other technical activities;the organization has its own sprawling campus of over 13 Acers land at thane.

It has its own accommodation where following infrastructure has been created over last five decades of

1.      Accredited Textile Physical Laboratory          8. Library

2.      Accredited Textile Chemical Laboratory              9.  Training facilities

3.      Color & Design Laboratory                                     10. Auditorium and conference room    

4.      Research &Development Division11. Computers, LCD projectors

5.      Eco- Testing Laboratory       12. Information technology coordinationcenter  

6.       Textile Technology Lab.13. Administrative & accounts Department.

7.       Pilot Plant.14. Center of excellence for Sportech. 

 

 

Activities performed

1.       Research & Development.                                7.  Industrial Audits.

2.       Testing & evaluation service.                           8.  Turnkey Projects.   

3.       Color technology.                                               9.  R&D, Training in Sportech.        

4.       Training & Education.                                        10. Developments in woolen & Manmade Textiles.  

5.       Technical services to decentralized

Carpet industry, SMEs Cottage/Rural industry.

 

Textile testing laboratory

Textile testing Laboratory has undergone Onsite assessment for verifying the continual compliance to ISO/ IEC 17025: 2005. The laboratory is also accorded international Accreditation membership for the year 2016 by inter-wool labs. This Lab is currently under up gradation, sponsored by ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India.

Yarn & Fabric manufacturing Facilities

            WRA’s Pilot plant is equipped with yarn manufacturing facilities for woolen yarn, worsted yarn, and friction spun yarn, blends of wool with other natural& natural synthetic fibers. It also houses knitting facilities like hand knitting machine, semi-automatic & computerized flatbed knitting machine.

ECO Laboratory

            WRA’s  Eco Laboratory has been one of the major facility Centre created in the aftermath of the German ban on certain azo dyes, heavy metals and other toxic components, closely followed by Government of India measures on similar lines with a view to provide necessary help to the Indian industry in the production of eco-friendly textiles.

Eco Laboratory is well equipped to take up testing of Dyes, Pigments and Finished Textile Products as per international Standards and has been providing the testing services to the textile industry over a decade.

Textile chemical & color department

Textile Chemical & Color department is involved in R&D and testing related to textile wet processing (Textile pretreatment, dyeing & Finishing), advanced textile technology like Plasma treatment, ultrasonic treatment, functional finishing, coating, Effluent and waste water analysis,  color difference measurement, quality control, yellowness & whiteness index measurement. It is also involved in color recipe prediction service for all customer specific requirements and also involved in color data maintenance and update for all online customers through indigenously developed internet based computer color matching service.               

 

 

CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR SPORTECH

Wool Research Association, Thane (WRA) which has been of late designated as COE in Sportech, by Ministry of Textiles under Technology Mission on Technical Textiles (TMTT) scheme with financial assistance of Rs.24.5 Crs. This facility is being set up in two buildings renovated inside the existing WRA campus i.e., a PILOT PLANT and SPORTECH LABORATORY buildings.

Pilot plant houses machineries related to Center of Excellence in Sportech comprises of:

1.      Gill box                                                     9.  Semi-automatic flatbed knitting machine       

2.      Comber       10.  Hot melt laminating and coating machine                    

3.      Cheese winding           11. Compression molding machine                  

4.      Two for one twister (TFO)                      12. Rubber mixing mill           

5.      Sectional warping machine                    13. Ultrasonic sealing machine                               

6.      Flexible rapier loom                               14. RF sealing machine    

7.      Circular knitting machine15. Shoe stitching machine

8.      Warp knitting machine (tricot type)     16. Industrial sewing machine

These machines are being utilized for product development and R &d related to sports textiles and other technical textiles.

The Sportech laboratory is equipped with state of the art equipment’s related to testing of technical textile product and in particular Sportech products made of woven, non-woven, knitted and composite textiles. The tests are performed by the skilled staffs, thus ensuring the consistency, reliable and accurate analysis to serve the needs of users and manufacturers to ascertain the product quality and specifications required to compete the global demands. Testing assignments are undertaken against specifications of BIS, ISO, ASTM, AATCC, and other reputed standards and also customized testing as per customer's requirement.

          WRA is rendering continual testing and consultancy services at various levels in textile and allied industries, Government agencies, international agencies etc.

          Our trained and competent Technical & Management personnel ensure to deliver the accurate results within the shortest possible time frame.

FOR ALL LABORATORY TESTING AND PILOT PLANT FACILITY USE PLEASE CONTACTDIRECTOR

WOOL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

KOLSHET ROAD, THANE – 400 607

Tel: 022- 25314294/25868398

 

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China has been a very favorable topic for U.S. politicians for last three decades, and the 2016 election was no exception. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton repeatedly promised to stand up to China and hold it accountable to international trade rules, but the exact wording of her statements usually left her enough room to avoid action if necessary. However, President-elect Donald Trump’s anti-trade, anti-China rhetoric, however, unambiguously bound him to decisive action.

 

China has been a very favorable topic for U.S. politicians for last three decades,and the 2016 election was no exception. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton repeatedly promised to stand up to China and hold it accountable to international trade rules, but the exact wording of her statements usually left her enough room to avoid action if necessary. However, President-elect Donald Trump’s anti-trade, anti-China rhetoric, however, unambiguously bound him to decisive action.

 

Now since he will be in White House very soon, he has to take tough decisions to fulfill his commitments made during Presidential campaign.  Trump will have to thoroughly discuss and plan these implementations has he will come to know now facts of various matters which he has been discussing during the campaign and he will find a difficult to keep many promises made during campaign. With Republicans in control of both the Senate and the House of Representatives, he won't be able to blame Congress if he fails to deliver. In fact, he could make good on most of his promises on trade and China through executive action, without Congressional approval. U.S. President Barack Obama's penchant for governing by executive order means that many of his initiatives can be reversed with the stroke of a pen. Expect a quick end, for example, to U.S.-Chinese cooperation on climate change.

 

At the very beginning of his campaign, Trump pledged to label China a currency manipulator on day one in office. Trump has also vowed to take legal action against Beijing (domestically and at the World Trade Organization) and to slap punitive tariffs on China if it does not stop its illegal activities. Not much wiggle room there.

 

 

 

 

On top of all this is Trump's pledge to scrap the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Obama’s flagship trade, investment, and intellectual property deal. In theory, the TPP should attract broad support from the U.S. political establishment. In practice, it has become politically toxic. Primarily a tool for spreading U.S. interests abroad, Trump has portrayed it as a Trojan horse for foreign—and ultimately Chinese—influence.

 

Those were the campaign promises. What is the reality? President Trump's China policy is likely to be much less aggressive than candidate Trump's. His language may not have been as carefully chosen as Clinton's, but his stance is not as extreme as it may appear. China probably has little to fear from Trump. And it may even stand to gain.

 

Trump has loudly, repeatedly, and unequivocally promised to instruct his secretary of the treasury to label China a currency manipulator on day one of his presidency. There is little reason to doubt his commitment to do so. Everyone knows that China is a currency manipulator and has been for the last 40 years. All countries take actions to manage their currencies, but China is more overt about it than most. Diplomatic politesse is the only reason China has dodged the label for so long.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The problem for Trump is that these days, China is more likely to be manipulating its currency up. Most countries accused of currency manipulation are accused of doing the opposite: a weak currency boosts export competitiveness. In fact, of the six countries on the U.S. Treasury Department's currency manipulation watch list, five are depressing the values of their currencies.

By contrast, China has intervened heavily in foreign currency markets to prevent a rapid RMB depreciation, according to a recent U.S.  Treasury Department report.

The communiqué goes on to note that over the last year China has “sold more than $570 billion in foreign currency assets to prevent more rapid RMB depreciation.” That represents an enormous market intervention to keep the RMB strong—and make Chinese exports less competitive.

 

China has not been manipulating its currency as a gift to U.S. exporters. It has been intervening to gain accession to the International Monetary Fund's global benchmark basket of currencies and to put a lid on the massive capital flight of late 2015 and early 2016. So although China clearly is a currency manipulator, and Trump's Treasury Department might label it as such, the only realistic remedy would be for Washington to continue monitoring China. Right now, Beijing’s actions are helping U.S. exporters, not hurting them.

 

TRADE AND RETRIBUTION

Trump’s threat to start a trade war with China is a more serious concern. Here the issue is big steel. Steel is a politically sensitive topic in Midwestern states such as Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio—states that propelled Trump to the presidency. With an eye to 2020, Trump can ill afford to be seen as weak on steel.

 

But widespread media panic over the possibility that Trump will place tariffs on Chinese steel is largely overblown. The United States routinely slaps punitive tariffs on Chinese exports. For example, in May the Obama administration hit China with tariffs of 451 percent for corrosion-resistant steel and 522 percent for flat-rolled steel. Chinese tires, chemicals, and other products also face heavy anti-dumping duties. The global economy has not ground to a halt.

 

Given extensive Chinese state intervention in its steel industry (which is largely state-owned), U.S. trade protection against Chinese steel is inevitable. The question isn't whether to act; it is about how much action to take. The prior existence of relatively uncontroversial Obama administration tariffs in the range of 500 percent doesn’t offer much room for concern about Trump’s future actions on steel.

 

Some of Trump’s vaguer statements on the campaign trail—for example, that all Chinese exports enjoy unfair trade subsidies of anywhere from 20 to 45 percent—do not bind him to slapping indiscriminate tariffs on all Chinese-made goods. In any case, Trump’s allegations of unfair competition are probably true. Labor and environmental standards in China are atrocious, and state subsidies are rife.

 

But tariffs are unlikely in industries where there are no major U.S. competitors for Chinese imports, or where goods are manufactured in China by U.S. companies. Industries that may once have been politically sensitive, such as electronics and footwear, no longer are. Trump is more likely to place duties on high-value durable goods, such as subway carriages and specialized construction equipment. These moves won’t make the national headlines, but they will help Trump on the stump in 2020, when he will have to convince Midwestern voters that he delivered on his trade promises.

 

A GIFT TO CHINA

 

 

 

 

China’s biggest cause for cheer is that the populist turn seems to have ended all possibility that the United States will ratify the 12-country TPP. The agreement will only enter into operation if at least six of the countries involved, constituting 85 percent of the group’s GDP, ratify it. That means without the United States, there will be no TPP.

 

The TPP is highly controversial for many reasons, but one thing is clear: it is a United States–centered trade agreement that strongly favors U.S. interests.

 

 

On the campaign trail, Trump repeatedly warned that if the TPP came into force, China would eventually “enter the TPP through the back door at a later date.” He didn’t seem to understand that the whole point of the TPP is to set the rules of twenty-first century trading without input from China, then make China agree to those rules in order to join.

 

Trump’s unequivocal pledge to dump the TPP even compelled Clinton, who had once called the deal “the gold standard,” to disavow it. Now the Obama administration has publicly proclaimed that it will not lobby Congress to ratify the TPP during the lame duck session, and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has clearly stated that the bill will not be brought to a vote this year.

 

Killing the TPP may be the one great gift that Trump (and the rest of the dysfunctional U.S. political establishment) gives to China. When Trump set out on this political odyssey a year and a half ago, he gave a rambling kick-off speech in which he said over and over again how much he loves China. He said that China’s leaders are smarter and more capable than our own. The self-inflicted death of the TPP may just prove him right.

 

Hence actions of President Donald Trump will be watched Global Community very carefully particularly in case of China & Iran.  China it looks stands to gain considerably because of exist of TPP and USA may not find easy replacement of Chinese goods because of capacity constrains globally and nobody can match Chinese production capacities.   This has to be very carefully watched now.

 

Sourced & Compiled by

Mr. Arvind Sinha - CEO

M/s. Business Advisors Group, Mumbai

Cell No. 9820062612 / 8108612612

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IPCCI was established in 2007. IPCCI goal is to develop Indian & Polish business andindustry relations. We work to: identify and strengthen business and industry’s rolein the economic development of the countries; act as a catalyst in bringing aboutthe growth and development of Indian & Polish business; identify and address thespecial needs of the small sector to make it more competitive. We work with variousorganizations providing a platform for exchange of knowledge and experienceso that the Polish and Indian cooperation interacting fruiting. On the occasion 60th

Anniversary of established diplomatic relationship between Poland and India IPCCI has been awarded by the Embassy of India in Poland for its outstanding contribution to strengthening trade and people to people ties between India and Poland. All areas of potential cooperation.

 

REPORT ON POLAND-INDIA TRADE FIGURES

 

Textile and Apparel industry in Poland acted well in 2015 taking the basic economic indicators such as the value of sold production, employment and profitability of trading under consideration. Despite continued strong competition from low-cost countries, there are distinct indications of the production rebuilding in certain categories of Polish textile industry for the last two years.

 

FOREIGN TRADE

In 2015, the total value of imports of textiles and clothing to Poland increased by 13,9% and amounted to 8,70 bln €, being shared by 4,05 bln € on imports of textiles and 4,65 bln € on the import of clothing. (In ‘2014, imports totaled 7,64 bln € , textiles amounted to 3,86 bln €, clothing – 3,78 bln €.) In the same period, the total value of exports of textiles and clothing from Poland  increased by 20,5% and amounted to 6,48 bln € being shared on  2,24  bln € in export of  textiles and 4,24 bln € for the export of garments. (In 2014, exports totaled 5,38 bln €, textiles – 2,03 bln €, clothing - 3,35 bln €). Data for ‘2015 indicates that although exports of textiles and clothing grew faster than imports of the same products, the total trade deficit of Polish textile and clothing sector was amounted to  2,22 billion € in ‘2015.

 

Import of Textiles & Apparel from main Countries to POLAND in ‘2015

 

Apparel

APPAREL  (CN 61 - 62) 

in mln €

Total Value of Import

4 652,00

1.

China

1 539,20

2.

UE

1 154,20

3.

Bangladesh

699,90

4.

Turkey

348,52

5.

India

196,34

7.

Cambodia

182,62

8.

Pakistan

107,88

9.

Wietnam

101,88

10

Indonesia

87,51

11.

Marocco

67,57

12.

Sri Lanka

107,88

13.

Others

58,50

 

 

YARNS (ALL KINDS)

100% Cotton                       (CN 5205 - 5507) 

in mln €

100% Chemical Filament-Fiber  (CN 5402-5406)

in mln €

100% Chemical Cut-Fiber (CN 5509 - 5511)

in mln €

Total Value of Import

68,27

Total Value of Import

237,51

Total Value of Import

40,25

1.

India

22,83

1.

UE

154,13

1.

UE

12,76

2.

Turkey

18,94

1.

China

31,34

2.

Turkey

10,55

3.

Uzbekistan

5,19

2.

India

12,86

3.

Indonesia

6,22

4.

Pakistan

2,72

3.

Korea

9,19

4.

India

2,82

5.

Germany

1,85

4.

Turkey

7,88

5.

Others

7,90

6.

Others

16,74

5.

Others

22,11

 

 

 

 

Fabrics  

100% Cotton Fabrics                      (CN 5208 - 5512) 

in mln €

100% Chemical Filament’s Fabrics   (CN 5407 - 5408)

in mln €

100% Chemical Cut’s Fabrics (CN 5512 - 5516)

in mln €

Total Value of Import

242,15

Total Value of Import

306,29

Total Value of Import

178,59

1.

UE

148,53

1.

UE

128,12

1.

UE

88,21

2.

Turkey

39,3

2.

China

113,81

2.

China

62,10

3.

China

17,44

3.

Turkey

31,61

3.

Turkey

13,36

4.

Pakistan

15,46

4.

Korea

10,42

4.

Pakistan

6,37

5.

Uzbekistan

5,9

5.

India

2,93

5.

India

1,55

6.

India

1,2

6.

Others

19,40

6.

Korea

0,93

7.

Others

14,32

 

 

 

7.

Others

6,07

 

Technical Fabrics, Knitted Fabrics, Home Textiles

Technical Fabrics                      (CN 5901 - 5911) 

in mln €

Knitted Fabrics                       (CN 6001 - 6002)

in mln €

Home Textiles  (CN 6302)

in mln €

Total Value of Import

494,92

Total Value of Import

230,29

Total Value of Import

176,28

1.

UE

321,94

1.

UE

135,28

1.

Pakistan

44,42

2.

China

96,5

2.

Turkey

40,56

2.

UE

43,11

3.

Turkey

11,96

3.

China

37,18

3.

China

37,90

4.

India

11,85

4.

Korea

5,34

4.

Turkey

16,50

5.

Korea

10,51

5.

Egipt

3,88

5.

India

16,22

6.

Others

42,16

6.

Others

8,05

6.

Bangladesh

15,34

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.

Others

2,79

:TOTAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS:

 

 

Source: Amit Lath (Sharda Group)

 

Suggested Points for Ministry of Textiles which would help to increase Trade between India-Poland

 

Apparel – India is losing big market share in Apparel business due to waiver of duties (0%) on imports from Bangladesh, Turkey & Pakistan to Europe. Whereas Indian goods have 10% duty in Europe. Also besides duty waiver all these countries are heavily subsiding & giving benefits to exporters in various forms – some as mentioned below. We foresee in period of 3-5 years market requirements in Central/East Europe will grow but India’s share will decrease or there would be minimal increase compared to other countries who are competing with India in similar products.

 

Raw Materials (yarns) – Presently India is leader is supplies of Raw materials to Poland – but India in coming years may lose big share as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Korea, Turkey have waiver on duties (0%). Besides that many countries like Indonesia, Uzbekistan have much lower duties (3.2%) whereas India has import duties of 4%.

 

I assume India should raise a serious point with Europe especially for duty waiver on this product –

Europe has negligible growth of Raw Cotton

Europe has very small production of Yarns on its own – 85% + yarns are imported by Europe from Turkey, Central & South-East Asia majorly.

 

Advantage European producers gains by getting duty waiver on Yarns – This will help EU producers to produce more in Europe and compete with certain countries who are dumping Textiles to Europe in big way. Yarn will contribute 20% of final value hence 80% value addition is done in Europe which helps the Industry directly to generate more revenue and increase in employment. The most effected countries as on date in Europe who are still having Textile production is: Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland and Romania.

Fabrics – India has lost biggest share in Fabrics due to 8% import duty in Europe – also technology wise India lacking as compared to Turkey, China, Pakistan, Korea and Indonesia. Also countries like Turkey, Pakistan & Korea have duty waiver (0%) hence they have together gained substantial stare. Also simultaneously Italy, Portugal & Spain are also large producers of fabrics hence India faces large competition 

 

  Technical Fabrics, Knitted Fabrics & Home Textiles

Technical Fabrics – India is last 4 years have increased supplies and we would see further increase as Technical Textiles (Non-Woven) is in demand.

Knitted fabrics – India has large reasonable setup of knitting machines but unfortunately India lacks behind in terms of having good quality process - dyeing – finishing units which could do a quality work and export to Europe. Raw Knitted fabrics are exported to Poland for final finishing in Poland.

 

Home Textiles – As we see Pakistan are leaders in Home Textiles followed also by Turkey & Bangladesh – these 3 countries dominate largest market share as they have duty waiver (0%) as compared to India & China. Also Europe has huge Home Textile production in Portugal, Spain, Greece, Romania and Poland.

The largest contribution in Home Textiles is Towels exports from Pakistan & Turkey which are increasing these trade figures to Poland.

 

Few Important points for kind consideration:

Following points should be seriously considered by Textile Ministry to boost and increase India’s share especially into Central/Europe – These markets are fast growing markets but India share is very small and we are hugely lacking behind. To Support these initiative if Indian Government can add following advantages:

Interest Rate for Exporters - Libor + 1-1.5% maximum (Presently its Libor + 4 to 6%)

Allowance of Letter of Credit 120 days at cheap discounting by Banks so Indian exporters can compete with Pakistan & Bangladesh who offers similar advantage.

Additional benefits to be provided on Focus Market Scheme to boost exports in Central/East Europe increasing India’s presence.

Countries like Turkey have established special bank for Textile Industry i.e “Tekstil Bank” if India can also focus on such possibilities which could help Textile Exporters to benefits based on export performance.

Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) should develop closer co-operation with Banks & Factoring companies in Central/East Europe so that India can offer flexible terms of payments under full insurance and right formats of contracts.

 

For any assitance or help please contact :

Mr. Amit Lath (Vice President)

Indo-Polish Chamber of Commerce & Industry (IPCCI)

 

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. | Mobile: +48601336699

Green chemistry is the chemistry that-Doesn't hurt nature, Reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances, Provides more eco friendly alternative, Prevents formation of waste, Creates new knowledge based on sustainability i.e. sustainable chemistry, Takes a life cycle approach to reduce the potential risks throughout the production process.

 

Recently steps have been taken to make textile materials and processing more environmentally friendly (or ‘greener’), including FIBER production, dyes and auxiliaries, solvents, optimized and efficient processing with recycling of water and chemicals, bio-processing, the elimination of hazardous chemicals and the recycling of textile materials.

 

The purpose of this article is to review the information on the sectors such as textiles, which have extensive use of both chemicals and water, green chemistry measures can not only play a role in improving their resource efficiency but also help reduce the effluent generated thereby reducing the adverse environmental impact of the industry. Many multinational companies have already embarked on the process of conducting extensive research to alter/enhance their production processes in order to reduce their environmental footprint, manufacturing cost and increase safety of their end products leading to sustainable development.

 

Keywords: green chemistry; sustainability; textile fibers; textile dyeing and finishing; ionic liquids

 

 

Introduction:

There is growing confidence among industry by improving the overall resource efficiency, green chemistry can provide financial benefits to chemical companies from lower material usage, energy and capital expenditure costs in addition to environmental benefits. Moreover, the export oriented industries like Textile, Pharmaceutical and Pesticides are under pressure to find greener alternatives to comply with regulations in major export markets like Europe and United States. Indian industry has started taking small steps towards incorporating these principles while developing green chemistry solutions and approaches. Though, the sector is still in its infancy, it can definitely aid the industry to achieve environmental as well as resource sustainability.

Chemical sector is among the key focus sectors of the Make in India initiative. In sectors such as textiles, which have extensive use of both chemicals and water, green chemistry measures can not only play a role in improving their resource efficiency but also help reduce the effluent generated (both quantum and type) thereby reducing the adverse environmental impact of the industry. Many multinational companies have already embarked on the process of conducting extensive research to alter/enhance their production processes in order to reduce their environmental footprint, manufacturing cost and increase safety of their end products.

 

Drivers for green chemistry practices in Indian Industries

l  Buyer Demand and Regulation driving export oriented industries: This is relevant to the industries like textile apparel, pharmaceutical and pesticides which are heavily export oriented and will lose business if they don't comply to 

l  Increasing production cost: Due to increasing resource scarcity the resource cost is increasing. This is in turn increasing the overall production cost which directly affects the top line and the bottom line of any company. Therefore cost reduction is catalyzing action in resource intensive sectors.

l  Market Competitiveness and need for innovation: Customers are continually demanding better product at a reasonable cost. To remain competitive, companies have to innovate continuously and figure out new ways to provide better products at minimum cost. This is increasing the uptake of green and progressive chemistry in sectors like pesticides and pharmaceutical.

Right now the market for the green chemistry is quite niche in the Indian market at the moment, but is expected to grow into a full fledge industry accounting for almost US$10 billion by 2020.  Buyer demand and regulations in the export market as well as the ever reforming regulations in India are going to drive the adoption of green chemistry in Indian Industry.

 

 

The Greening of the Cotton Supply Chain

There are new processing technologies that are significantly improving the sustainability of the entire supply chain for cotton products. While cotton cultivation practices have improved vastly in recent years, including the development of varieties that have  increased yields and require far less chemical and water input, new dyeing and finishing technologies also require fewer chemicals and consume less energy and water while also releasing cleaner effluent. Process technologies highlighted include new enzymes and  one technologies that replace harsh chemicals in fabric finishing, very low-moisture foam dyeing technologies, waste- and solvent-eliminating digital printing technologies, low-salt reactive dyes, bleaching processes that drastically reduce water and energy use, and technologies that combine dyeing and finishing in one step, among other technologies. The video also presents the point of view of respected retailers who expect
 manufacturers to implement these new green technologies as a prerequisite to a continuing business relationship.

 

What Is Green :

Green connotes the general idea that a product or a process is beneficial to, or at least has minimal impact on, the environment with regard to energy, resource and raw material usage; greenhouse gas and toxic emissions; and/or waste generation. It often is interchangeable with environmentally friendly, eco-friendly and other general terms. Sustainable is a broader term that encompasses not only the environment, but also economic and social equity considerations. A sustainable product has minimal impact on the environment in that harvesting or resource usage does not deplete or permanently damage the resource; plus, it can be produced in an economically viable way and it is produced with consideration for the welfare of employees and others impacted by the production. Cradle-to-cradle refers to a regenerative life cycle in which no material making up a product becomes waste because non compatible materials in the product can be separated and all can be recycled and reused for the same purpose as the original virgin material. This is in contrast to a cradle-to-grave product that cannot be recycled and ends up in a landfill at the end of its useful life, or a cradle-to-gate product whose environmental footprint has been calculated from raw material acquisition through the manufacturing process.

Principles of green chemistry:

The following objectives for green chemistry:

(1) Waste management: elimination or minimization of waste.

(2) Atom economy: no or lower wastage of atoms.

(3) Catalysis: catalysts are preferred to stoichiometric reagents (the latter are used in excess and work only once, whereas catalysts are mostly recovered, recycled and reused).

(4) Direct reactions: use of minimum or fewer reaction steps; derivatives or intermediate steps use additional reagents and have the potential to generate more waste.

(5) Safer reactions: synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

(6) Renewable raw materials: use of renewable and non-depleting feedstock’s.

(7) Safer products: preservation of the efficacy of functioning while reducing toxicity.

(8) Biodegradability: use of easily and harmlessly degradable chemicals with no accumulation in the environment.

(9) Green auxiliaries: use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents) should be avoided wherever possible and where absolutely necessary, should preferably be innocuous.

(10) Energy economy: saving of energy should be achieved preferably by using reactions that take place under ambient temperature and pressure conditions.

(11) Safer by-products: real-time monitoring and control and reuse of by-products.

(12) Hazard control: avoidance of hazardous chemicals to minimize the chance of explosions, fire and harmful releases.

 

 

Development of green solvents

In classical chemical processes, solvents are used extensively for dissolving reactants, extracting and washing products, separating mixtures, cleaning the reaction apparatus and dispersing products for practical applications. While the invention of various exotic organic solvents has resulted in some remarkable advances in chemistry, many of the conventional non-aqueous solvents represent a great challenge to green chemistry because of their toxicity and flammability.

 

l  Conventional solvents

Most organic solvents are volatile and unless controlled will escape into the workplace and the atmosphere, where they can be instrumental in causing photochemical smog. Many hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents readily evaporate and are highly flammable; hence, their use needs to be managed carefully to minimize the risks of fire or explosion, particularly during loading and unloading for storage or transport, during storage itself and when being used in bulk. Safe-handling information provided by the supplier should be carefully followed.

 

l  Bio-solvents

Solvents produced from renewable resources such as ethanol produced by fermentation of sugar-containing feed stock; starchy materials or lignocelluloses materials may be selected. This substitution for petrochemical solvents leads to an avoidance of the use of fossil resources (petrochemicals) and fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 into the environment.

 

  • Supercritical fluids

The most promising supercritical liquid, scCO2, is being intensively studied as a potential solvent for various purposes because, it avoids the use of CFCs, and thus reduces ozone depletion

 

l  Ionic liquids

Molten salts have unusual solvating powers for polar materials, and the low melting point organic salts have been found to be an attractive alternative to aprotic polar solvents like dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide.

 

l  Non-volatile solvents

Liquid fractions of polyethers [such as poly (ethylene glycol)] and siloxane polymers are particularly inexpensive non-volatile green solvents. They are non-flammable, generally non-toxic to humans and aquatic life, biodegradable (less so for the siloxanes), and available in a wide range of polarities.

 

l  Ester solvents

Both volatile and non-volatile ester solvents are used as carrier oils, plasticizers and coalescent, for example, isopropyl laurate, rapeseed methyl ester (used as biodiesel), glycerol triacetate and dibasic ester (DBE) has accepted as phthalate-free plasticizers and as biodegradable carrier oils for eco-friendly inks.

 

Green chemicals

The characteristics of green chemicals are as follows:

• Prepared from renewable or readily-available resources by environmentally-friendly processes;

• Low tendency to undergo sudden, violent, unpredictable reactions such as explosions;

• Non-flammable or poorly flammable;

• Low toxicity and absence of toxic constituents, particularly heavy metals;

• Biodegradable;

• Low tendency to undergo bio-accumulation in food chains in the environment.

 

 

Greener energy

One of the best approaches to a greener environment is to save energy by consuming fewer resources. Processes like heating, cooling, stirring, distillation, compression; pumping and separation require electrical energy which is often obtained by burning fossil fuel. This results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to global warming. Green power is a subset of renewable energy and it represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit. Green power sources produce electricity with an environmental profile superior to conventional power technologies and produce no anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EPA defines green power as electricity produced from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, biomass and low-impact small hydroelectric sources. Customers often buy green power to avoid environmental impacts and for its greenhouse-gas-reduction benefits.

 

 

Cotton production

The use of fertilizers and pesticides/herbicides/defoliants is the main contributor to both energy consumption and eco toxicity, but there was conflicting evidence about the contribution of other stages in production with EDIPTEX, reaching the conclusion that eco toxicity from the production phase for traditional cotton is less significant. A shift to organic cotton could significantly reduce eco toxicity, but organic cotton has greater impact on agricultural land occupation due to its lower yield. (It is worth noting that, in any case, around 66% of the cotton now grown is genetically modified to decrease the need for pesticide/herbicides/defoliants.)

 

Synthetic fiber production

Nylon and acrylic FIBERs are the most energy intensive synthetic fibers to produce and are technically the most difficult to recycle.

 

Regenerated cellulose fiber production

It is found that viscose is the most energy intensive regenerated cellulose fiber to produce, whether or not various types of wood or bamboo (the predominant sources of raw material in regenerated cellulose fiber manufacture) are used.

 

 

 Agents used in FIBER processing

In terms of its contribution to adverse environmental impact, palm oil was identified as especially significant in its use as a feedstock for the manufacturing of soaping agents and softeners; the scouring stage was highlighted as an issue in relation to wool, and dye carriers were highlighted as an issue in relation to polyester.

 

Transport

The impact from transport is relatively low except for those arising from photochemical oxidant formation (smog) which comes from the use of trucks, ships and planes. It is estimated that 8% of textiles imported are carried by air freight and the rest (92%) are by ship. Although air freight only accounts for a small share of distribution, its impacts are proportionally much higher.

 

Consumer use

Energy requirements and eco toxicity associated with the use phase of textile products primarily relate to laundering and drying processes, particularly washing energy and use of detergents, and can be influenced by FIBER choice and blends.

 

Disposal

The findings also highlighted the potential benefits of more sustainable systems of resource use associated with the disposal phase, with the benefits from reuse, recycling and energy recovery being specifically highlighted

 

Conclusion

Sustainable production and consumption can only be achieved if all market contributors take responsibility. Industrialists, retailers and consumers should take ecological factors into account in every decision-making process. Manufacturers have been changing their attitudes; there has been an increasing awareness that many products could be produced under better conditions with greater respect for the environment, for example, by using less energy, attaining better yields, creating less pollution of water or air, generation of less waste and fewer (or no) unwanted by-products. Wet-processing part of the textile industry continues, it is clear that there continues to be scope for it to continue to ‘green’ its processes and the chemistry involved. In almost every case of pollution, the fundamental problem for the textile industry is found to be low process inefficiency and a poor understanding of the life cycle of textile chemicals. It is important that chemists and engineers work together to develop new sustainable processes as only by combining the best ideas from both areas will the required technological leaps be made. Improvements have occurred since the industry began to use new test regimes to benchmark the environmental performance of textile chemicals, but it appears that the dialogue between the textile industry, the technical-consulting community. The application of the principles of green chemistry and other aspects of clean technology will increasingly lead to more environmentally-compatible manufacturing systems with probable future priorities focusing on ‘Just-in-Time’ manufacturing, small and intensive plants based on use of local resources (replacing the traditional giant-sized chemical plants), plant-based feedstock’s, clay-based reagents and catalysts, and it is quite possible, as transport increasingly becomes an issue, that manufacturing will become more focused

on regional needs rather than global market opportunities.

A systematic eco-plan can lead business to such an extent that it should:

• Help customers and employees to live a healthier lifestyle;

• Set new standards in ethical trading;

• Send zero waste to landfill;

• Develop sustainable sourcing routes;

• Become carbon neutral or have a ‘net zero carbon footprint’ by balancing measured

 amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or by offset.

 

 

References:

1.http://www.sustainabilityoutlook.in/content/green-chemistry-indian-industry-warming-global-action-755116#sthash.ZJN0v2qO.dpuf

2. Green chemistry and the textile industry by Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury published on    Textile Progress at05 Aug 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405167.2013.807601

3. Going Green: Beyond Marketing Hype November 24, 2008 http://www.textileworld.com/textile-world/features/2008/11/going-green-beyond-marketing-hype-2/

4. Textile Effluent Treatment – A Solution to the Environmental Pollution -Dr. Subrata Das

5. Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management in Textile Enterprises-Fengfei Zhou, Tianjin Polytechnic University- journal of sustainable deveopment Vol 2, March 2009

6. Clothing technology that keeps it clean -Fibertofashoin.com

7. Natural green dyes for textile industry-TURI, Dr. Sukalyan Sengupta, Civil & Environmental Eng. Department Dr. Bal Ram Singh, Chemistry & Biochemistry Department University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

8. Systems thinking and green chemistry in the textile industry: concepts, technologies and benefits, Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 12, Issue 6, August 2004

9. Ikea, Nike, and the green textile revolution,By James Murray 09 Apr 2013, www.businessgreen.com/bg/feature/2260182

10. Green technology and energy management systems in developing countries: A case study of Pakistan Textile Industry, Sabir, U. ; London Sch. of Commerce Associate Coll., Cardiff Metropolitan Univ., Cardiff, UK ; Ariwa, E. ; Taylor, A. at IEEE Xplore digital Library,

11. Artical - China Pushes textile companies to go green , by Wang Fangqing, 12 March 2013 in Just-style.com

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

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