History Of Polyester
The History of POLYESTER" is quite interesting, which I thought needs to be pointed out before reviewing the Industry as a whole. Polyester, as a specific material, most commonly refers to a type called PET (polyethylene terephthalate) Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polybutyrate.
Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not. Polyester is used very widely in clothing. Depending on the chemical structure, polyester can be a Thermoplastic or Thermoset. There are also polyester resins cured by hardeners. However, the most common polyesters are Thermoplastics.
Polyester yarn is not a very old yarn as compared to conventional yarn like Cotton or woollen Yarn, which are much older yarns available in the market.
Polyester cloth was invented by British scientists John Whinfield and James Dickson in 1941 in England. In 1945, afterWorld War II was over, the United States Company DuPont bought the right to make polyester and by 1950, a factory in Delaware was beginning to manufacture it.
In 1960, in India, it was Mr. DhirubhaiAmbani and his co-brother- Mr. ChampaklalDamani, who started Reliance Commercial Corporation. In 1965, the partnership ended and Dhirubhai continued the polyester business of the firm. In 1966, Reliance Textiles Industries Pvt Ltd was incorporated in Maharashtra. It established a synthetic fabrics mill in the same year at Naroda in Gujarat in 1975. Since then, the core business of Reliance Industries till today, is manufacturing of different kinds of polyester yarn.
This is documented in a very interesting book called 'The Polyester Prince' by Hamish McDonald, which was published in 2011, but the book was banned in India.
The book takes a balanced look at India’s own robber baron. Mr. McDonald pays tribute to Gujarati traders/ Banias in the first few chapters, by acknowledging their exuberance of speech, inventiveness, and commercial drive. Dhirubhai first displayed his diplomatic and negotiating skills during the Junagadh freedom struggle. At Yemen, he exploited the fact that silver content in the Rial, was higher than in the pound.
Review Of Polyester Yarn
The Analysis of Fibres, Yarns & Threads, is an essential activity for the whole fibre and yarn industry, as these are important components of the textile industry. As per the fibre report, the trends favour man made fibres, yarns and threads. They have grown considerably in the recent years which has resulted in significant increase in their production and consumption. However, this rise is due to increased consumption in China which sustains global demand. But demands in fibre industry of other developed countries have decreased due to restructuring of their textile industry.
The output of manmade fibre had increased in Asia by 11.9%. The consumption of wool and cotton has also increased here by 2.5%. A decline was seen in Europe and Americas at nearly 4.5% each. The growth in today's booming markets is predicted to be restricted by energy and raw material shortages.
In India, the oldest textile market is in Surat, Gujrat. In Surat there are thousands of yarn manufacturing units, which manufacture different kinds of yarn, ranging from cotton yarn to polyester yarn and many more.
The textile industry in Surat is mainly engaged in the activities of yarn production, weaving, processing, as well as embroidery. Surat is well known for its synthetic products market. It is mainly engaged in the production and trading of synthetic textile products. Nearly 30 million metres of raw fabric and 25 million metres of processed fabric are produced in Surat daily. The city has several textile markets that exist since times immemorial.
There are many other places where the textile Industry has flourished well; places in Rajasthan, Punjab, and Karnataka like Banswara, Bhilwara, and Belgaum etc.
The Surat textile industry has grown considerably over time. As per recent figures, textile production in Surat has grown by 10% in the last 5 years, while the market for embroidery has grown from an almost negligible amount to around Rs. 30000 million over the same period.
Though there is high supply of Polyester, the demand in domestic market is not as much, due to tropical climate in India. In recent years, the exports have fallen, the Chinese manufacturers have also emerged as competitors to Indian manufacturers, as they are producing the same quality at lesser price.
According to correspondence in May 2015 in the Business Standard, the polyester yarn Industry was expected to perform better as compared to the last few years.
After tough competition from cotton last year, the manmade yarn and fabric industry is expected to grow at a higher rate of five to seven per cent in 2015-16 due to stable crude oil prices. However, it is the domestic market that will see the larger growth, as Indian synthetic yarn and fabric performance, has not been one of the best internationally.
So, while companies in this segment are not expecting much from exports, the domestic market might bring back some sheen, they say. “While normal growth of five to seven per cent is anticipated, if the economy does well, this could go up to double-digit growth,” said O P Lohia, chairman, Indo Rama Synthetics (India) Ltd.
The Indian manmade fibre industry consists of two main sets of players: The 1st, are erstwhile textile players, and the 2nd have a presence only in manmade fibres (that is, non-diversified players). Further, there are some companies that have been established by equity contribution from the technology licensors. The Indian petrochemical companies have a presence, mainly in the fibre intermediates segment of the fibre value chain (excluding Reliance Industries Limited, or RIL, which can be considered as a former textile player).
After understanding the polyester yarn industry in India for polyester yarn, the domestic market has become very tough for the manufacture’s to survive, hence most of the small manufacturers in Surat, especially do not just focus only on polyester yarn but other different yarn and fibres too for their survival !!